Questions and Answers

 

0.1
This is the property that belongs to a deceased person (i.e. a person who has died); it includes assets and debts which they accrued during their life. Deceased estates can be very large or very small and everyone should plan what should be done with their estate after they die even if they own a little bit and their estate is very small. Almost every person owns something and it goes into their deceased estate when they die. An interesting development in recent years is the concept of digital assets. These pertain to ownership of assets owned and consumed electronically such as online bank accounts, computer programmes, applications, accounts, photographs, music etc. This concept is still very undeveloped Zimbabwe and for now we will concentrate on the usual tangible assets like money, clothes, vehicles and houses. However, we look forward to also exploring and helping to develop the concept of inheritance of digital assets if people want to know more.
Le yimpahla yomuyi; igoqela impahla yakhe yonke lezikwelede ayabe elazo ngesikhathi esaphila. Ilifa leli lingabe ligoqela impahla enengi kumbe encane ngakho umuntu wonke kumele ahlele ukuthi impahla yakhe yenziweni engafa kungakhathalekile lokuthi impahla inengi kumbe inlutshwana. Umuntu wonke ulakho alakho njalo lokhu kulilifa ngemva kokufa kwakhe. Ngokuguquka kwezinto, abantu sebegcina impahla zabo kuma computer laku internet okufana lama bank accounts, imifanekiso , izingoma lemiculo kanye lokunye okuqakathekileyo.Konke lokhu akukathuthukiswa kwele Zimbabwe njalo okwakathesi sizagxila kulokho okuvamileyo okufana lemali, izigqoko, izimota lezindlu . Ngakho ke, sikhangelele ukuthi sicubungule siphathise njalo ekuthuthukisweni kwelifa elitholakala kumbe eligcinwa kusetshenziswa indlela zakulezinsuku nxa abantu befuna ukwazi okunengi.
Zvinoreva zvinhu zvemufi senge mari nemidziyo chero chipi nechipi zvacho kusanganisira nezvikwereti. Nhaka inogona kuve ine hupfumi kana kusava nezvakawanda. Asi munhu wese anotarisirwa kunge anga ainewo zvinhu chero zvishoma zvakadii, chero hembe shomanana zvadzo; yese inhaka. Parizvino nekushanduka kwezvinhu, vanhu vavakuitawo zvinhu zvinopinda panhaka muma computers nepa internet senge ma bank accounts, mapikicha, mumhanzi nezvimwewo zvakakosha. Zvese izvi zvinofanira kutaurwa kuti mutemo wedu ukwanise kubata zvese izvi.
0.2
After notifying the Master all the deceased’s assets and belongings have to be identified and listed including all their movable and immovable property, household and personal effects. This is best done by very close relatives such as spouses or close family members.
Ngemva kokwazisa idale ngempahla yonke ebisebizweni likamuyi ezigoqela phakathi izinto ezifana lezindlu ,izimota lezikwelede zakhe.Lokhu kwenziwa kuhle yizihlobo zakhe ezifana lamalunga emuli kumbe umka muyi.
Kunonyoreswa zvinhu zvese zvaive nemufi kunyanya zvihombe senge dzimba, mari, motokari nezvikwereti. Hama dzepedyo dzainyatsoziva mufi kana kugara naye nekuziva zvinhu zvake ndidzo dzinofanira kuzvinyoresa.
0.3
Every culture has its own way of disposing of and distributing the property of a deceased person. Grabbing or hiding or abusing deceased estate property is a criminal offence as is using it without the authority of the appointed executor. It is a legal requirement to register and administer all deceased estates in accordance with the Administration of Estates Act. A deceased estate is supposed to be registered with the Master within 14 days of the death. Failure to register a deceased estate or concealing or falsifying information regarding deceased estates is a criminal offence. Registration is done at the Master of the High Court’s Office and through magistrates courts throughout the country.
Isiko lesiko lilendlela yokwabela impahla yomuyi. Kulicala ukuthatha lokufihla impahla yomuyi kulicala ikakhulu nxa kungela mvumo yalowo oyabe ekhethwe ukuthi abe nguye olemvumo yoku ayabe leyo mpahla.Yonke impahla kamuyi kumele iyebhaliswa kuMaster wedale le High Court kulandelwa umthetho obona ngokwabelwa kuhle kwempahla owe Administration of Estates Act. Ukubhalisa lokhu kumele kwenziwe kumalanga alitshumi lane umuntu etshonile .Kulicala ukungabhalisi impahla yomuyi kumbe ukubhalisa impahla engayisyo .Ukubhalisa lokhu kwenziwa yihofisi ka Master wedale le High Court kumbe kumadale abo mantshi elizweni lonke jikelele.
Marudzi ese ane nzira dzawo dzekugova nhaka yemufi. Asi imhosva huru kuparadza kana kugova kana kushandisa nhaka zvisina mvumo. Zvinhu zvemufi wese zvinofanirwa kunonyoresa kwa Master veku High Court. Mahofisi avo anowanikwa futi kuma Magistrates Courts ese ari mumatunhu akasiyana enyika. Zvinofanirwa kuitwa mazuva makumi nemana asati adarika kubva mukufa. Imhosva huru kusanyoresa kana kunyoresa zvekunyepa.
0.4
If the deceased left a valid will the property will be distributed according to that will in as far as is legally and practically possible. Generally if:

i. the deceased was married and did not leave a valid will their surviving spouse and children (if any) will inherit their property in the manner prescribed by the law. We shall look at this in more detail later.

ii. If the deceased was not married but had children the property will be inherited by the children in equal shares. Children includes those born in and out of wedlock.

iii. If the deceased was not married and had no children their property will be inherited by their closest family members and relatives who qualify as prescribed in terms of the law. Closest family members include parents or grandparents and siblings. The qualifying family members are mentioned in the Act.

iv. If the deceased was a minor child their parents or guardians inherit their property which they can distribute in the manner they may want.
Nxa umuyi watshiya ebhale i wili , impahla yakhe izakwabelwa kulandela leyo wili.

Esikhathini esinengi nxa:

i. umuyi ubengumuntu othetheyo kumbe obethethwe njalo engatshiyanga ugwalo oluchaza ukuthi impahla yakhe yabelwe njani okubizwa ngokuthi yi wili umkakhe labantwana nxa kuyabe kulelifa kumbe impahla eseleyo yibo abatshiyelwayo kulandelwa indlela eyabe ihlelwe lugwalo oluchaza ukwabiwa kwempahla esemthethweni.Sizakhangela lokhu ngokugcweleyo phambili .

ii. umuyi ubengumuntu ongathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa kodwa elabantwana , impahla yakhe kumbe ilifa lizakwabelwa abantwabakhe ngokulingeneyo.Abantwana kugoqelwa bonke alabo lalabo abangaphandle komendo.

iii. umuyi ubengumuntu ongathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa njalo engela bantwana ,impahla yakhe izathathwa yizihlobo zakhe eziseduze lalabo okumele bathole limpahla kulandelwa umthetho .Izihlobo eziseduze zigoqela abazali kumbe ogogo labokhulu kanye labafowabo kumbe abanewabo bomufi.Abenelisa ukwabelwa limpahla bahlelilwe kulumthetho.

iv.umuyi ubengumntwana , abazali kumbe ababemgcina kumbe ukumondla yibo abaphiwa limpahla ngendlela abangabe beyifuna.
Kana mufi akasiya anyora kana kutaura zvaaida kuti zviitike nezvinhu zvake, izvo ndizvo zvinotevedzwa kana zvichikwanisika uye kana zviripamutemo. Asi kana akanga asina kusiya anyora:

i. Kana mufi anga akaroora kana kuroorwa, murume kana mukadzi wake nevana (kana ainavo) ndivo vanopihwa. Zvine maitirwo azvo pamutemo zvatichawongorora

ii. Kana mufi akanga asina kuroora kana kuroorwa asi aine vana, vana vake ndivo vanopihwa nhaka yemubereki wavo. Vana ava vanopihwa zvikamu zvakaenzana.

iii. Kana mufi akanga asina kuroora kana kuroorwa, asina vana zvakare, hama dzake dzepedyo kutanga nevabereki vake zvichitevera hanzvadzi vakoma nevanin’ina kusvika kuna sekuru nambuya vanogona kupihwa nhaka. Zvese zvinoitwa pamutemo wakanyorwa.

iv. Kana mufi akanga achiri mwana, zvinhu zvake zvinopihwa vabereki vake.
0.5
he surviving spouse inherits the matrimonial home as their sole and exclusive property. If there is no will and the house was jointly owned the surviving spouse will apart from retaining her own share inherit the deceased spouse’s half shares and therefore claim the house entirely. The matrimonial house is the house the married couple last lived in as a married couple. It does not mean any house the couple may have owned because they may have owned more than one house.

According to the Deceased Estates Succession Act with effect from 1 November 1997 surviving spouses of people who died without leaving a will are entitled to receive the free residue of the estate. The free residue means after debts and other obligations have been paid out for example the deceased might have left an unpaid medical bill or electricity bill. Valid claims will be paid first from the money in the deceased’s bank account or from the proceeds of selling their property with the Master’s approval. If there is free residue the surviving spouse will receive:

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  1. The house or other domestic premises in which they lived together as husband and wife immediately before the person’s death and

  2. The household goods and effects which were used in the house or domestic premises in which the couple lived together immediately before the person’s death or simply put when the spouse died.
Oyabe esele kulabo abathetheneyo uyathola indlu eyibhalise ebizweni lakhe njalo enze angabe ekufuna ngayo.Nxa kungela gwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla njalo lindlu ibibhaliswe emabizweni abo bobabili , oyabe esele ngaphandle kokuthola indlu uzaphinda athathe ingxenye yomuyi kuleyondlu okutsho ukuthi nguye ozabe esengumini ogcweleyo waleyondlu . Le yindlu eyayihlala abathetheneyo bobabili omunye engakatshoni .Lokhu akuchazi ukuthi loba yiphi indlu ngoba bengabe belezinye izindlu ezimbalwa.

Kulandelwa umthetho wokwabiwa kwelifa owe Deceased Estates Succession Act owaqala ukusebenza kusukisela ngomhlaka 1 Lwezi ngomnyaka ka 1997 omunye walabo abathetheneyo oyabe esele uyathatha indlu lempahla ababeyisebenzisa bebonke.Kuqala ngokubhadalwa izikwelede zonke andubana indlu inikezwe umka muyi .Kungabe kulezinye izikwelede zamagetsi kumbe ezesibhedlela.Lezi mali zizabhadalwa zisuka kulifa likamuyi kumbe kumali ezatholakala emveni kokuthengiswa kwendlu ngemvumo kaMaster.Nxa kulokunye okuyabe kusele, umka muyi uzathola :

Indlu lempahla eyabe iphakathi ebeyisebenzisa besaphila bonke njengomfazi lendoda khonapho khonapho kungakaqhamuki imfa njalo

Impahla yendlini lokunye okwakusetshenziswa endlini yabo ngesikhathi besaphila njengendoda lomfazi khonapho khonapho kungakaqhamuki imfa yomunye wabo bobabili.
Mukadzi kana murume afirwa anogoverwa imba yavaigara vese kuti ive yake ipinde muzita rake ari ega achibvumidzwa kuita zvaanoda nayo. Kana vanga vakanyoresa mazita avo vese anoramba aine chidimbu chake asi anozowana chikamu chemufi. Imba iyi imba yavaigara vese semurume nemukadzi. Hazvirevi imba yese yese yavo nekuti vanhu vanogona kunge vaine dzimba dzakawanda.

Mutemo we Deceased Estates Succession Act unoti kubva 1 November 1997 unoti anowana imba yavaigara vese nezvinhu zvemumba imomo zvavaishandisa. Kana vaive nedzimwe dzimba dzinogovewa nezvimwe zvinhu. Kunotanga kwabhadharwa zvikwereti zvese kuti imba izokwanise kupihwa murume kana mukadzi wacho. Kunogona kunge kwaive nezvikwereti zvemagetsi kana chipatara zvakasiiwa nemufi. Zvinotobhadharwa nenhaka yake.
0.6
If there is no will and the spouse has no registered share in the house he or she is still entitled to the matrimonial house. However, if the house belonged exclusively to the deceased they can nominate any person or indeed any other valid entity to inherit it such as a club or association or even a company. However, this position of absolute freedom with one’s property when one is married has been questioned by the courts and it is still a grey area. On paper if the married couple each owns half shares in the house the other party ideally can leave their half shares to someone else if they write a will. In that case the surviving spouse will have to share the house with whoever was appointed to inherit the deceased’s half shares in terms of the will. However, this is practically difficult and rarely works in practice. The courts will have to finalise this.
Nxa kungela gwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwelifa njalo umka muyi engabhaliswanga ukuba yingxenye yobunini bendlu .Nxa indlu ibisebizweni likamuyi yedwa, bengakhetha omunye umuntu kumbe enye inhlanganiso ethembekileyo ukuthi ithathe lindlu enjengekilabhu kumbe inkampani.Kodwa indaba yokuthi umuntu ulemvumo yokwenza umathanda ngendlu yakhe yena ethethe kumbe ukuthathwa yinto esacutshungulwa ngamadale ezomthethwandaba njalo ayikacaci . Nxa abathetheneyo belengxenye ezilingeneyo endlini , kungaqhamuka imfa omunye walaba bobabili uyenelisa ukupha ingxenye yakhe komunye umuntu nxa engakubhala kugwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla i wili .Ngokunjalo umka muyi uzakwabelana indlu lalowo oyabe ekhethwe ngumuyi kulandewa iwili.Lokhu kuvame ukuba nzima njalo ngesikhathi esinengi akuhambi kuhle.Idale lezomthethwandaba yilo elikuxazululayo.
Kunyange mufi akasiya asina kunyora will (wiri) uye mukadzi kana murume wake akanga asina kunyoreswawo pamba yavaigara vese anoipihwa imba yacho chero zvakangodaro. Asi kana mufi ainge akanyora will imba inogona kupihwa chero ani zvake waakanyora kuti aipihwe chero iye mufi akanga aine mukadzi kana murume nevana. Hazvirevi kuti vanhu chete ndivo vanopihwa nhaka. Nhaka inogona kusiirwa chero chii zvacho chiri pamurau senge chechi, company, chikoro chero mapato akasiyana siyana

Asi zvazvo panya iyoyi mutemo uchiri kupokana panyaya yekuti munhu anobvumidzwa kunyoresa munhu waanoda kusiira imba nezvinhu zvake asiri murume kana mukadzi wake. Asi nerimwe divi zvinonzi munhu ane mukadzi kana murume haakwanisi kuita kuti mukadzi kana murume wacho ashaye zvinhu zvakakosha, kunyanya imba yavaigara vese. Chero zvakasiya zvanyorwa zvinogona kupfudziswa nematare kana zvisiri kukurudzira mitemo. Asi munhu haagoni kugovera vamwe vanhu chinhu chisiri chake kana kuti chaanosheya nemukadzi kana murume wake kana zvisingakwanisi kupatsanurika
0.7
The surviving spouse also inherits the household items which were in the matrimonial home as stated above. The property including money that is left after debts and other obligations have been cleared is shared between the surviving spouse and the children they had together. A spouse is entitled to a child’s share. The inheritance is divided by the number of children and the wife and they all get a share. If it was a polygamous union or children born out of wedlock it means there will be more children to share in the inheritance.
Umka muyi uyathola njalo impahla ebisendlini njengokuhleliweyo phambilini.Lokhu kugoqela phakathi imali eyabe isele ngemva kokubhadalwa kwezikwelede lokunye.Imali le iyabelwa umka muyi labantwababo bobabili.Umka muyi uthola imali elingana leyomntwana .Ilifa labelwa abantwana bonke lomkamuyi .Nxa bekulesithembu kumbe abanye abantwana abayabe bezelwe ngaphandle kwalaba abazelwe yilaba abathetheneyo kutsho ukuthi inani labantu abazakwabelwa ilifa liyengezelela.
Umka muyi uyathola njalo impahla ebisendlini njengokuhleliweyo phambilini.Lokhu kugoqela phakathi imali eyabe isele ngemva kokubhadalwa kwezikwelede lokunye.Imali le iyabelwa umka muyi labantwababo bobabili.Umka muyi uthola imali elingana leyomntwana .Ilifa labelwa abantwana bonke lomkamuyi .Nxa bekulesithembu kumbe abanye abantwana abayabe bezelwe ngaphandle kwalaba abazelwe yilaba abathetheneyo kutsho ukuthi inani labantu abazakwabelwa ilifa liyengezelela.
0.8
The property is awarded in terms of Sec 68F(b) of the Administration of Estates Act. If there are two or more wives one-third of the net estate is divided between the surviving wives with the first or senior wife getting two thirds of the residue and the junior wives sharing the remaining third equally and the remainder of the estate will go to the child or children in equal shares. If the wives lived in separate houses, each wife will get ownership of the house and its household contents. If they were living in one house and if it is practicable they will get joint ownership of the house or be allowed to live in it or use it for the rest of their lives.
Impahla yabelwa kulandelwa u Sec 68F(b) womthetho we Administration of Estates Act. Ukwabiwa kwenziwa kumahlandla womathathu.Umfazi wakuqala uthola inani lokubili kuthi abanye bathola inani lokukodwa okuyabe kusele .Nxa kuyikuthi bebehlala ezindlini ezehlukeneyo omunye lomunye uzathola indlu ebehlala kiyo kodwa nxa kuyikuthi bebehlala endlini yinye nxa kusenzakala indlu le iyaba ngeyabo bonke kumbe behlale kiyo ngokungapheliyo.
Vanogoverwa zvakanagana ne Administration of Estates Act. Zvinodimburwa muzvidimbu zvitatu. Mukadzi wekutanga anowana zvikamu zviviri vamwe vogovana chikamu chasara. Kana vaigara mudzimba dzakasiyana mumwe nemumwe anowana imba yaaigara asi kana vaigara mumba mumwechete kana zvichigona vanosheya imba yacho kana kubvumidzwa kugara imomo zvachose
0.9
Section 56(3) of the Constitution outlaws discrimination based on various grounds including being born out of wedlock. Children born out of wedlock or from second wives cannot be deprived of the rights accorded to children born in matrimony. In a 2015 judgement High Court judge Mwayera J ruled that children born out of wedlock have the same inheritance rights as children born in marriage and therefore should inherit their parents’ property on equal terms.
USection 56(3) wesisekelo sombuso welizwe asivumezi ukubandlululwa kwabantu lokwenqabela ukuthi bengenelisi ukuthola amalungelo alingana lawabanye okugoqela phakathi ukuzalwa ngaphandle komtshado kumbe ebantwini abathetheneyo.Abantwana abazalwa ngaphandle komtshado kumbe abazalwa kwabanye abafazi kumele bathole labo impahla ehambelana leyabanye.Kusukisela ngomnyaka ka 2015 umahluleli wedale le High Court ujudge Mwayera J walawula esithi umntwana wonke ulelungelo lokuthola ilifa lomzali wakhe elilingana lelabantwana abazelwe endlini kumbe abathetheneyo.
Bumbiro remitema yenyika(Constitution) inorambidza kutsaura vanhu kuti vashaye dzimwe kodzero dzinowana vamwe. Kubvira muna 2015 mutongo wakabuda ku High Court wakati mwana wese chero akaitwa kunze ane kodzero yekuwana nhaka yemubereki wake zvakangofanana nevana vemumba
1.0

While Section 56(3) outlaws discrimination in all its forms Section 56(5) allows for exceptions. To an extent discrimination is allowed if in the circumstances it is fair, reasonable and justifiable. It may be fair and reasonable to exclude children born out of wedlock from sharing in an inheritance for example if the property believed to have been owned by their deceased parent actually belonged to or was jointly owned with their spouse. The surviving spouse cannot be deprived of their rights to any part of their share so what they own cannot be put into the deceased estate for distribution.

Lanxa uSection 56(3) engavumezi ubandlulo lomhlobo loba wuphi, uSection 56(5) uvumela okunye. Ubandlululo luyavunyezwa nxa kulesizatho esiqinileyo sokuthi kungabi lokulinganiswa ekwabelweni kwempahla njengokuthi nxa indlu ibisebizweni lakhe umuyi kanye lelomkakhe.Umka muyi kangeke wephulelwa amalungelo akhe kanye lamandla akhe okuthi abelane labantwana bakamuyi abazalwa ngaphandle komtshado.Ngakho ke indlu le kayingeke yafakwa njengempahla yomuyi okumele yabelanwe.
Hongu. Chero hazvo Constitution ichirambidza kutsaura vana asi dzimwe nguva vanogona kusaenzaniswa nevemumba. Kana nhaka yemubereki wavo yakabatana neye mukadzi kana murume wavo isingagoni kupatsanurika havakwanisi kuipihwa. Mutemo hauna mvumo yekutorera munhu chinhu chaakazvisevenzera nesimba rake kuti chipihwe vana vakaitwa kunze kwemba yavo.
1.1
Yes. There is no distinction between children born out of wedlock be they a man’s or woman’s. The law applies equally to men and women.
Yebo. Umthetho awukhangeli ukuthi ngumntwana ozelwe ngowesifazana kumbe owesilisa ngaphandle.Umthetho usetshenziswa ngokulingeneyo.
Hongu. Mutemo haunei kuti vana vemurume here kana kuti vemukadzi. Vese vanoenzaniswa vopihwa chikamu chenhaka chakaenzana nevamwe vana varipo.
1.2
The Maintenance Act compels parents to maintain all their children no matter the circumstances of their birth. The Deceased Persons Family Maintenance Act provides for the maintenance of minor children regardless of their birth circumstances. The duty of maintenance of a minor child is borne by the estate if the estate it is adequately resourced.
Deceased Person Family Maintenance Act inoti vana vasiiya nemubereki anga achivachengeta akwanise kuramba achichengetwa nenhaka yemubereki kana nhaka yacho iripo. Master weku High Court vanowona nezvekuramba vana vasiiwa vachichengetwa nenhaka iyoyo. Ndicho chikonzero chekunyoresa nhaka yemufi kuti iwonekwe magovere nemashandisirwo ayo.
Deceased Person Family Maintenance Act inoti vana vasiiya nemubereki anga achivachengeta akwanise kuramba achichengetwa nenhaka yemubereki kana nhaka yacho iripo. Master weku High Court vanowona nezvekuramba vana vasiiwa vachichengetwa nenhaka iyoyo. Ndicho chikonzero chekunyoresa nhaka yemufi kuti iwonekwe magovere nemashandisirwo ayo.
1.3
Writing a valid will saves many battles and family conflicts. Other ways are establishing trusts or companies. If one wants to do that it is advisable to consult a legal practitioner who is also a notary public. A Trust in its simplest sense is a formal and structured arrangement to preserve property for the benefit of other people or other valid entities such as animals or other various causes. A Trust can be established during the lifetime or death of the Trust’s founder. If done properly it Trusts provide a much tidier and secure way of administering and safeguarding property for the intended beneficiaries.
Ukubhala ugwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla olusemthethweni iwili kunceda imuli ezinengi njalo kuvikela udlakela lokungezwani emulini.Enye yendlela yikusungula ama trusts kumbe amankampani. Nxa umuntu efuna ukwenza lokhu kuyacetshiswa ukuthi ayebona ingcitshi kwezemithetho njalo engu notary public. ITrust yona itsho indlela esemthethweni yokulondoloza impahla ukuze iphathise abantu , inkampani lenyamazana lokunye nje oyabe ukukhethile wena . ITrust ingasungulwa usaphila wena .Ingaqhutshwa kuhle yindlela elemithetho eqondileyo yokulondoloza impahla lokuqhutshwa kwayo ngenhloso yokuphathisa abantu oyabe ufuna ukuthi baphathiswe ngayo kusasa.
Unogona kunyora Will zviripamutemo. Will inobatsira kuti kurwisanisa nhaka kuite kushoma kana kusatovepo. Zvakanaka kunotaura negweta kuronga ramangwana. Pane nzira dzakasiyana kunge kuvhura Company kana kuti Trust. Trust inzira yekuchengetedza pfuma kuti izoshandiswe nevanhu vaunoda. Trust inochengetedzwa nevamwe vanhu kusanganisira kana kusasanganisira iwe unenge waigadzira. Ine mitemo yayo yainotevedza kuitira kuti ifambe mugwara rakanaka pfuma ichengetedzeke kuti ishandiswe neakachengeterwa.
1.4
Yes. Estates can be registered at all local magistrates courts throughout the country except in Harare. In Harare, all estate matters are handled at the Master’s Office. The office of the Master of the High Court of Zimbabwe is found throughout the country and works through magistrates at civil courts. Magistrates are appointed as assistant masters and can perform the Master’s duties under authority.
Yebo. Ilifa liyeneliseka ukubhaliswa kumadale abo mantshi atholakala elizweni lonke jikelele ngaphandle kweHarare. EHarare indaba zonke eziphathelane lelifa zikhangelwa ehofisini kaMaster edale leHigh Court. Idale leli litholakala elizweni lonke jikelele njalo lisebenzela edale likamantshi elibona ngendaba ezingela bungebenga.OMantshi yibo abaphathisa ngomsebenzi ka Master endaweni zabo .
Hongu. Vanonyoresa kumahofisi amudzviti akatekeshera nenyika zvichireva maCivil Court kana kuti Magistrates Court. MuHarare chete ndimo musingaitwi nyaya dzenhaka kuCivil Court. Nyaya dzenhaka dzese dzinoitwa kumahofisi aMaster muHarare. Vana mudzviti vanemasimba mamwe aMaster kuti vamiririre hofisi yavo vabate mabasa mamwe. Saka hapana chikonzero chekuenda kumaguta makuru kunonyoresa nyaya dzenhaka.
1.5
An executor is appointed to administer a deceased estate. The executor is responsible for taking care of the estate such as pursuing and collecting debts owed to the estate and paying off debts that the estate owes third parties. The executor has to take care of the property that is in the estate with as much care and skill as the owner would have done. We will look at how the executor is appointed below.
Umuntu oqondisa impahla kamuyi ngu executor.Lo ulomsebenzi wokulondoloza ilifa, eqhuba imisebenzi efana lokulandelela abantu abalezikwelede zomuyi kanye lokubhadala izikwelede eziyabe zitshiyiwe ngumuyi.Kumele njalo agcine impahla ngendlela umuyi ebezayigcina ngawo.Ngaphansi sizakhangela ukuthi vele yena ukhethwa njani.
Munhu anochengetedza nhaka yemufi anonzi executor. Executor anebasa rekutevera zvikwereti zvemufi nekuwona kuti zvabhadharwa nevanhu vaive nemari yake uye kubhadhara zvikwereti zvaaifanira kunge akabhadhara kune vamwewo vanhu. Executor anosungirwa kuchengetedza hupfumi hwemufi kunge zvaizoitwa nemuridzi wazvo. Tichatsanangura kuti executor uyu anosarudzwa sei.
1.6
An executor can be appointed in any of three ways

i. in terms of a will

ii consent of the closest relatives

iii. appointment by the Master.

Usually the Master intervenes and appoints an independent executor if the deceased’s relatives cannot reach consensus on who to appoint or if there is a dispute within the family over the appointment. The Master can also appoint an executor if the appointed executor is incompetent and not performing their duties well. The deceased’s close relatives, creditors and debtors should attend a scheduled meeting at the Master’s office or the Magistrates Court for the appointment of the executor. Upon the appointment the executor is issued with Letters of Administration which serve as the official authority to act as the executor. The role of executor can be jointly shared between two people with the Master’s approval.
U executor kumbe umqondisi ukhethwa ngendlela ezilandelayo

i. kulandelwa iwili

ii ukuvumelana kwezihlobo eziseduze

iii. ukukhethwa ngu Master.

Esikhathini esinengi uMaster uyangenela ekhethe umuntu ongela buhlobo lomuyi nxa kungela kuzwana ekukhethweni kukamqondisi kumbe u executor.UMaster engakhetha umqondisi kumbe u executor nxa lowo oyabe ekhethiwe eveza ukungabi lolwazi lokuqhuba umsebenzi awuphiweyo .Izihlobo zikamuyi eziseduze, abalezikwelede zikamuyi lalapho umuyi alezikwelede khona kumele bangene umhlangano ehofisini kaMaster kumbe edale likamantshi ukuze kukhethwe umqondsi kumbe u executor. Ngemva kokukhethwa kwakhe uyaphiwa incwadi zokumupha imvumo yokuqhuba umsebenzi njengomqondisi kumbe u executor. Umsebenzi wakhe engawuqhuba labanye ababili lokhu konke kusenziwa kulandelwa imvumo kaMaster.
Executor anosarudzwa nenzira nhatu dzinotevera

i. kana akanyorwa muwill yemufi

ii. kubvumirana kwehama

iii. kutonga kwaMaster

Master anopindira odoma executor asina hukama nemhuri yemufi kana paita makakatanwa nekusawiririrana kwehama pakusarudza executor. Master anemvumo yekugumura Executor kana asiri kuita basa zvakanaka oisa mumwe executor. Executor anosarudzwa nehama pamusangano wehama na Master unonzi Edict meeting. Kana pane asarudzwa kuita executor anopihwa magwaro ebasa anonzi ma Letters of Administration. Ndiwo anomupa mvumo yekuita basa raExecutor. Magwaro iwawo anozodiwa kuratidzwa pese paanenge achiita basa rekufambisa nhaka yemufi. Basa raExecutor rinogona kuitwa mubatanidzwa pakati pevanhu vaviri kana Master achiwona zvakakodzera.
1.7
After formal appointment the executor has to follow a guided process of accounting for all the assets and liabilities of the estate. They do it through drawing up the estate’s Distribution Account. The account lists all the assets and liabilities in monetary values and balances them. If the assets exceed the liabilities there will be a surplus which will be distributed to the beneficiaries. If the liabilities exceed the assets it means there is nothing to distribute to beneficiaries. The executor will have to sell the estate’s assets if any to settle debts. The administration of the estate culminates in distributing of the assets to beneficiaries and winding up the administration to the satisfaction and approval of the Master. The deceased’s property that remains in the estate after all expenses and liabilities have been paid out has to be distributed and the estate wound up and closed.
Ngemva kokukhethwa okusemthethweni kuka executor, okulandelayo yikulandela amanyathelo empahla lezikwelede zonke zikamuyi.Lokhu kwenziwa ngokuhlela okuthiwa yiDistribution Account okutsho indlela kumbe inyathelo lokwabelwa kwempahla. Lapha kulethwa mgceke impahla lezikwelede konke kufakwa emalini.Nxa impahla inengi ukwedlula izikwelede kuzaba lelifa elizakwabelwa labo okumele bathole.Nxa izikwelede zizinengi ukwedlula impahla kulifa kutsho ke ukuthi akula lutho lokwabela labo okumele bathole.Umqondisi kuzamele athengise impahla nxa ikhona ukuze abhadale izikwelede.Ukuqondiswa kwempahla kucina ngokwabela limpahla kulabo okumele bayithole ize iphelelele yonke kusenziwa ngemvumo ka Master. Impahla kamuyi izasala ikhona ngemva kokubhadala kwezikwelede .Ngemva kokwabiwa kutsho ukuthi ilifa likamuyi labelwe laphelelela.
Executor anonyora zvinhu zvese zvakasiiwa nemufi oyenzanisa mari inofanira kubuda kubhadhara zvikwereti nemari inofanira kuwedzera nhaka inofanira kuteverwa. Kana apedza kudaro kana paine zvasara ndizvo zvinogoverwa hama dzepadyo dzinokodzera. Kana zvikwereti zvakapfuura hupfumi hwenhaka hapana chinogoverwa. Executor anotozotengesa midziyo nezvimwe zvemufi kana zviripo kuti akwanise kubhadhara zvikwereti. Basa raExecutor rinofanira kusvika pakupera faira racho rizovharwa kana zvinogoverwa zvapera. Master anofanira kusvika pakubvumirana zviripamurawu nemagovero aitwa nhaka yemufi kuti zvinzonzi zvapera.
1.8
Yes the master feed are 4% of the value of the estate which have to be paid before the administration can begin. An independent executor charges 5% of the value of the estate. Payment of the Master’s fee is mandatory for all estates but the Master is amenable to granting special payment concessions on a discretionary basis upon request.
Yebo.Ku Master kuhlawulwa inani lokune ekhulwini lemali yonke elokwenza lempahla yonke yelifa ukuze umsebenzi wokuqhuba uqalise.Oqondisa ezimele yedwa yena ubiza inani lokuhlanu ekhulwini yenani yemali yonke yelifa.Imali le kumele ihlawulwe ukuze imisebenzi yonke yelifa iqhutshwe kodwa uMaster uyenelisa ukuthi abeke indlela kumbe indleko enelisekayo kungaba lesicelo.
Kwa Master kunobhadharwa 4% yemari yehupfumi hwenhaka zvichireva zvikamu zvina pazana rega rega remari yenhaka. Semuenzaniso kana nhaka ine huremu hunosvika $1000 mari inobhadarwa inenge iri $40. Executor akazvimiririra ega asiri hama anobhadharwa 5% yemari iri munhaka.
1.9
All complaints and disputes pertaining to deceased estates should be reported to the Master. The Master’s Office is legally obliged to attempt to resolve disputes family members, beneficiaries and executors. People who are aggrieved by any decision made by the Master pertaining to any aspect of appointment of the executor or the administration of a deceased estate are allowed to appeal to the High Court to review the decision. Legal practitioners can also be consulted for legal advice pertaining to the administration of deceased estates and assistance with resolution of inheritance disputes.
Izikhalazo zonke lokungezwani okuphathelane lelifa kumele kumangalwe ku Master. Ihofisi kaMaster ivunyelwe okusemthethweni ukuthi izame ukuxazulula ukungezwani kwamalunga emuli , labo okumele bathole ilifa kanye lalowo oqondisa kumbe oqhuba umsebenzi wokwaba ilifa. Abantu abangabe bekhubaziwe yizinqumo eziyabe zithethwe nguMaster ekukhethweni kwalowo oqondisayo kumbe u executor balemvumo yokuhambisa izikhalazo zabo edale laphezulu ele High Court ukuze isinqumo sikhangelwe njalo. Ingcitshi kwezemithetho lazo zingacelwa ukuthi zibacebise ngendaba zokwabiwa kwelifa likamuyi kanye lokuxazulula ukungezwani okungavela ngesikhathi kusabiwa impahla zikamuyi.
Chese chanetsa pamaererano nenyaya dzenhaka chinofanira kumhan’arwa kuna Master nekuti hofisi yavo ndiyo inemasimba ekuenzanisa mhuri dzinenge dzatadza kuwirirana. Vanenge vasina kugutsikana nematongero a Master vanekodzero yekukwidza nyaya yavo kudare guru re High Court. Vanhu vanokuridzirwa kuwona magweta kutsvaga mazano maererano nemutemo.
2.0
Unregistered customary marriages are regarded as valid as any other marriage for the purposes of inheritance like Chapter 5.11 and Chapter 5:07 marriages. Chapter 5.07 are registered customary marriages. Section 68 of the Administration of Deceased Estates Act contains provisions for customary marriages.
Imitshado yesintu layo iyananzwa njengeminye imihlobo yemitshado nxa kukhangelwa ukwabiwa kwelifa njengokwabiwa okwenziwayo emuntwini olomtshado wensontweni u Chapter 5.11 lo Chapter 5:07 . UChapter 5.07 ngumtshado wesintu obhalisiweyo okusemthethweni . USection 68 womthetho obona ngokwabiwa kwelifa owe Administration of Deceased Estates Act uqukethe ezinye indlela ezigoqela imitshado yesintu.
Hongu inopihwa chiremerera chakangofanana nemichato yekwa mudzviti kana yemu kereke yeChapter 5.11 neChapter 5:07. Michato ye Chapter 5.07 michato inobvumidzwa barika asi yakanyoreswa kwamudzviti. Chikamu 68 che mutemo wenhaka unonzi Administration for Deceased Estates chakanangana nezvenhaka dzemichato yechivanhu chete.
2.1
This is often a contentious issue and one of the leading causes for inheritance disputes. This is one of the reasons edict meetings are so important and vital in the administration of estates. The edict meeting is convened for all those who have an interest in the estate including family members, relatives, debtors and creditors. At the edict meeting family members can confirm or deny the existence of a customary marriage. Many people are of the mistaken view that simply because a couple lived together for many years and had children it meant the couple was married. This is not true because there are certain recognised and mutually accepted cultural rituals that must be performed before people are regarded as being customarily married. If the family members from both sides are in agreement that the deceased was married the Master accepts they were married and confers the surviving spouse with the surviving spouse status. If not the Master will proceed as if the deceased was not married but will not disregard the children born of the cohabiting union.
Le imihlobo yemitshado engabhaliswanga ngenye yembangela yokungezwani ekwabiweni kwelifa.Ngenye yezizatho zokuthi izihlobo zingene emihlanganweni ebizwa ngokuthi edict njalo iqakathekile ekuqhutshweni kwemisebenzi yelifa .Limihlangano ingenwa yibo bonke abalokwenza lelifa likamuyi , abezikwelede labanye abaphathekileyo.Emhlanganweni lo kulapho amalunga emuli avuma kumbe ukulandula ukuthi umuyi ebelomtshado wesintu .Abantu abanengi bacabanga ukuthi ngoba ababili besebechithe isikhathi eside bebonke njalo belabantwana sekusitsho ukuthi ababili bebetshadile.Lokhu akusiloqiniso ngoba kulezinto eziphathelane lesiko okumele zenziwe kuqala ukuze betshadiswe okusesintwini. Nxa amalunga emuli zombili evumelana ukuthi umuyi ubethethe kumbe ukuthathwa uMaster uzalandela lokho okuvunyelwe ngabemuli zombili ebesipha umka muyi isikhundla sakhe esiqondileyo.Nxa kungenjalo uMaster uzaqhubekela phambili enanza umuyi njengomuntu obengathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa kodwa uzananza abantwana abazalwayo ngesikhathi behlezi bonke njengomfazi lendoda.
Michato yechivanhu isina kunyoreswa ndiyo yezvimwe zvinokonzera kupokana mumhuri. Ndizvo zvakakoshera kuti hama dzepedyo dziende kumusangano wehama kwa Master unonzi edict meeting. Kana hama dzikabvumirana kuti mufi akanga akaroora kana kuroorwa Master anongotevedzera izvozvo. Kana pakashaya kuwiririrana Master anoenderera mberi sekunge pakanga pasina wanano pakati pevaviri. Vanhu vazhinji vanorasika pakufunga kuti mukadzi nemurume vakagarisana kwechinguva chakareba uye vakaita vana vanenge vatove nemucahto asi hazvisirizvo pamutemo. Pakuroorana panofanira kunge pakaita zvirango zvechivanhu zvinotambirwa nehama dzemhuri mbiri dzevari kuroorana.
2.2
No. If anything the more recent civil marriage under Chptar 5.11 should be challenged and voided. Contracting a civil marriage while a customary law marriage subsists does not invalidate the first marriage contracted under customary law.
Hatshi.Nxa indoda yatshada edale phansi kukaChapter 5.11 lumtshado kumele ungemukelwa njalo ungabi khona.Ukungena komunye umtshado kulomunye kudala akuwuchithi owesintu obuvele ukhona.
Kwete kana murume akazochata kwamudzviti mucahto we Chapter 5.11 nemumwe mukadzi muchato iwowo unogona kunodzimiswa nekuti uri kunze kwemutemo. Muchato wakatanga kuvapo ndiwo unotanga kucherechedwa pakugova nhaka.
2.3
This is a typical Zimbabwean situation which causes the bulk of family conflicts and inheritance disputes. If there was a pre-existing and subsisting customary law marriage before the later civil law marriage was contracted the pre-existing customary law marriage is recognised as valid. The first wife is regarded as the surviving spouse. The subsequent marriage may be regarded as a polygamous marriage because a customary marriage will likely have been contracted in addition to the civil marriage but it will not supercede the first customary marriage.
Lokhu kuvamile kwele Zimbabwe njalo kubangela ukungezwani ekwabiweni kwelifa.Nxa kwakulomtshado wesintu obuvele ukhona kungakabi lomunye umtshado obhalisiweyo . owakuqala uyananzwa . Umfazi wakuqala nguye onanzwa njengomfazi kamuyi.Lo umtshado wesibili unanzwa njengesithembu ngoba lo umtshado wesibili ungabe wabakhona phezulu komtshado wesintu kodwa awubi phambili kowesintu.
Muchato wemukadzi wekutanga ndiwo unotorwa semuchato wekutanga zviripamurawu. Mukadzi wechipiri anogona kuzotorwa seari pabarika nekuti kazhinji anenge akabvisirwawo roora chero zvazvo aine muchato wekwa mudzviti. Pakadaro muchato wekwamudzviti hauiswi pamberi, unotoita seusipo nekuti hausi pamurawu.
2.4
This applies only to estates governed under customary law. It shows the net assets that are in the estate which will be distributed after settling all the liabilities and claims against the estate. The inheritance plan is drawn up for the benefit of the beneficiaries such as widows and children. It should include how the minor children will be maintained from the estate and from proceeds of sale of assets. Widows can also claim spousal maintenance from the estate. The Master has to ensure that all the family members with a stake in the estate have been consulted in drafting the inheritance plan. In order to minimize disputes the inheritance plan should be drawn up by consensus of the relatives as far as possible.
Lokhu kuchaza ilifa eliphansi komtshado wesintu.Kutshengisa impahla yonke ezakwabiwa ngemva kokubhadala izikwelede zonke zikamuyi.Uhlelo lolu lwenzelwa ukuphathisa abafelofazi labantwana.Luchaza njalo ukuthi abantwana abancane bazanakekelwa njani kumali yelifa lomzali kumbe ekuthengisweni kwempahla zikamuyi.Abafelokazi labo bengafuna ukuthi banakekelwe kumali yelifa lamadoda abo.UMaster kumele abe lesiqiniseko sokuthi wonke amalunga emuli aphathekileyo kulifa ayazisiswa ephe lemibono yawo ekuhleleni lindlela yokwabiwa kwempahla. Ekuhlelweni kogwalo lolu kumele kube lokuzwanana kwemuli lokhu kuzakwenza ukuthi ukungezwani kube kulutshwane luhlelwe ngendlela.
Igwaro rinonyorwa kana nhaka ichishandisirwa mutemo wenhaka yakanangana nemichato yechivanhu. Inoratidza midziyo inenge yasara kuti igoverwe kune vana nevakadzi vepabarika. Vana vechidiki nevakadzi vanogona kungoramba vachichengetwa nemari yenhaka kana ichiripo. Vanogona kupihwa mari yemendenenzi (maintenance). Master anofanira kugutsikana kuti vanhu vese vane chekuita nenhaka vakaziviswa nezvenhaka yacho panonyorwa inheritance plan kuitira kuyedza kuderedza kupokana kunogona kuitika.
2.5
The deceased estates of women married in polygamous marriage are also distributed in terms of the law of deceased estates under customary law. The surviving husband will get one third of her net estate and the remaining two thirds will be shared equally amongst her children. The co-wives in the polygamous marriage are not entitled to inherit anything from deceased co-wives.
Ilifa lowesifazana osesithenjini liyabiwa kulandelwa umthetho onanza umtshado wesintu.Owesilisa olomfazi otshonileyo uzathola impahla eyisilinganiso sokunye kokuthathu besekusithi inani yokubili kokuthathu izakwabelwa abantwana ngokulingeneyo.Abanye abafazi abasesithenjini abatholi lutho kulifa lomune umfazi.
Murume afirwa anowana chikamu chimwe chete pazvitatu zvimwe zviviri zvoenda kune vana vake zvakaenzana. Vamwe vakadzi vari pabarika hapana chavanowana panhaka yemumwe mukadzi wepabarika kana achinge afa.
 
Accordion Sample Description
Definition: Domestic Violence is the violent or aggressive behaviour within a home. It typically involves the abuse of a spouse or a partner but is not limited to these groups of people. It can also relate to children.

Domestic violence kutsho ukungazwanani okwenzakala ezindlini phakathi komfazi lendonda abahlala bonke kwesinye isikhathi kucina kuhlanganisela labantwana.

Domestic violence zvinoreva mhirizhonga inoitika mudzimba. Kazhinji inoitika pakati pemurume nemukadzi vanogara vese. Mhirizhonga inogona kubatanidzanevana

1
Domestic violence in Zimbabwe is restricted by the Domestic Violence Act.
1.2
Udlame lwasemakhaya luvinjelwa ngumthetho ohlelwe nguhulumende iDomestic Violence Act lokupha isijeziso kulaba abangalandeli umthetho lowu.
1.3
Hurumende yakaparura mutemo we Domestic Violence Act kuyedza kudzora mhozva yemhirizhonga nekupa mutongo kune vanotyora mutemoiwowu.
2
Under the Act domestic violence is anything that can result in;
  • sexual, physical, psychological, economic abuse, 
  • intimidation,
  • harassment, stalking,
  • getting rid of household property unnecessarily and unreasonably where a party has an interest,
  • blocking a complainant from entering a place where he/she stays,
  • forced virginity testing,
  • female genital mutilation,
  • pledging of women or girls for purposes of appeasing spirits,
  • forced marriage, child marriage or forced wife inheritance,
  • sexual intercourse between fathers in law and newly married daughter's in law
2.2
Udlame lwasemakhaya yiloba kuyini okungaqhamuka kulokhu:
  • Ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi, ngokomzimba, ngokwengqondo kanye lokomnotho.
  • Ukwesabisa omunye umuntu.
  • Ukuhlukumeza omunye umuntu kanye lokumlandela okungekho emthethweni
  • Ukulahla impahla yasendlini omunye umuntu osebenzisa leyo mpahla engakwazi.
  • Ukuvimba omunye umuntu ukuthi engangeni endlini lapho ahlala khona.
  • Ukuhlola omama lamankazana ubuntombi babo ngokuphoqiweyo.
  • Ukulimaza izitho zabantu besifazane.
  • ukuqinisekiswa kwabesifazane lamantombazane ngenhloso zokuthokozisa imimoya,
  • Ukuqinisekiswa kwabesifazane noma amantombazane ngenhloso zokuthokozisa imimoya,
  • Ukuphoqa abesifazana ukulotsholwa, ukulobolisa abantwana abancane, loba ukuphoqa ilifa labesifazane.
  • Ukuphoqa umalukazana ukuthi aphatheke kozocansi lobabazala kumbe izihlobo zendonda
2.3
  • Chisimba pabonde , kurova kushungurudzana pfungwa,kuvhiringidzana kurarama pahupfumi nemari
  • Kutyisidzira mumwe
  • Kushungurudza mumwe kana kungotevera munhu zvisiri pamutemo,
  • Kubvisa nekuparadza midziyo yemumba mumwe anoishandisa asingazive
  • Kudzivirira mumwe kuti asasvike pamba paanogara,
  • Kumanikidza vakadzi nevasikana kutarisa kuti vachiri mhandara here
  • Kukuvadza nhengo dzevakadzi
  • Kuroodza vasikana nevakadzi kuripa ngozi,
  • Kumaninidza vakadzi kuroorwa, kuroodza vasikana vechidiki, kumanikidza mukadzi
  • kugarwa nhaka
  • Kumanikidza muroora kuita bonde navatezvara kana hama dzemurume wake
3
At every police station there is a domestic violence expert. Such an expert will give the complainant advice on what to do.
3.2
Kuzo zonke izindawo ezisebenzela amapholisa kukhona ipholisa elilolwazi ngodlame. Nguye njalo onika ummangali izeluleko ngalokho okufanelwe kulandelwe kuphathelane lodaba lwakhe.
3.3
Pa police station pega pega pane mupurisa aneruzivo nezvemhiirizhonga. Ndiye anobata nyaya kana ichinge yauya kumapurisa ofambisa nyaya mberi achirayira munhan’ari zvinobatsira nyaya yake.
4
The person can either be arrested or the police officer may assist you in getting a protection order or an interim protection order.
4.2
Lowo owenza ubudlame engabotshwa loba ipholisa lingasiza ummangali ukuthi athole I -oda yokuvikelwa kulowo muntu olobudlame.
4.3
Mapurisa anogona kusunga munhu akonzera mhirizhonga anogona. Mapurisa anobatsira mumhan’ari kukumbira matare kuti ape protection order.
5
A protection order instructs the perpetrator to keep away from the complainant and maintain a healthy distance from him or her. It means that by law, the abusive person/ perpetrator will not be allowed to enter into the space of the complainant to further harm the complainant. A protection order will be automatically issued with a warrant of arrest by the courts but the warrant will be suspended for five years. If the perpetrators breach any of the restrictions within 5 years in the protection order they may be subject to arrest.
5.2
Umlayo wokuvikelwa uphoqa umenzi wobudlame ukuthi aqhelele kude lommangali njalo engamuhlukumezi. Kutsho ukuthi ngomthetho umuntu ohlukumezayo kavunyelwa ukungena endaweni lapho okulommangali khona. Owehluleka ukulandela umthetho wokuvikelwa uyabotshwa. Umthetho wokuvikelwa uphiwa ummangali nxa ecelile uhle uqale ukusebenza khonapho okweminyaka emihlanu. Kodwa lowo olecala ulakho ukuhamba enkantolo ngelanga elihleliweyo ukuze kubonakale njalo laye ezivumele ukuthi ulecala.
5.3
Protection Order inodzivirira mumhan’ari kuti arikumushungurudza asarambe achimushungurudza. Kana achirova anorambidzwa kusvika pedyo pemumhan’ari. Akatadza kutevedzera zvakatarwa neProtection Order anosungwa. Protection Order inotopihwa chete kana munhu achinge aikumbira yotototanga kushanda kubva ipapo kwemakore mashanu (5). Asi munhu arikupomerwa mhosva yacho anopihwa mukana wekuti auye kucourt pazuva rakatarwa kuti auye adaire nyaya yake kuti awonekwe kuti ane mhosva here.
6
No domestic violence can apply to anyone - women, men or children.
6.2
Hatshi iloba ngubani owenza udlame uyabotshwa abesifazane kumbe abantwana abancane.
6.3
Hongu vakadzi vanogonawo kusungwa chero vana vanogona kusungirwa mhosva yekuita mhirizhonga mudzimba
7
No, third party reporting is also allowed in our law. For example if you know your next door neighbour's spouse gets abused, then you can go and report anonymously and the case will be investigated by the police.
7.2
Hatshi: Ukumangala komuntu wesithathu kuvunyelwe emthethweni wethu. Njenganxa umuntu esazi ukuthi umakhelwane wakhe uyahlukuluzwa wenelisa ukuyabika ngokungaziwa kumbe ngokucatshileyo emapholiseni indaba iphenywe kabanzi.
7.3
Kwete. Vamwe vanhu vanogona kumhan’arira munhu arikushungurudzwa. Vavakidzani kana hama kana vachiziva kuti munhu arikushungurudzwa havafaniri kungozvisiya zvakadaro. Vanokurudzirwa kumhan’ara chero vasingapi mazita avo. Mapurisa anofanira kuzofeya nyaya yacho zvizere.
8
Yes you may. Where a protection order has been issued, you can apply for it to be varied or for it to be dismissed completely. This is not encouraged because it hinders the course of justice. It is likely that the domestic violence will continue
8.2
Yebo ungafaka isicelo sokuthi uhlukahluke kumbe ucitshwe ngokupheleleyo kodwa lokho akukhuthazwa ngoba kuyaphambanisa ukusebenza kwamapholisa njalo udlame lungaqhubekela phambili.
8.3
Hongu zvinogona kumisa nyaya yamhan’arwa kuti isaenderere mberi asi hazvikurudzirwi nekuti zvinokanganisa mafambiro emutemo. Kazhinji mhirizhonga inoramba ichienderera.
9
Yes there are. Musasa has shelters for domestic/sexual abuse survivors dotted all over the country. Shelters can be found in Gweru, Bubi, Buhera, Chikomba, Gutu, Gokwe, Marange, Mazowe, Bikita, Bulawayo, Mwenezi and Harare.
9.2
Yebo zikhona indawo zokusindela lokuthola usizo. IMusasa ilezindlu ezokucatshela. Izindlu lezi zitholakala eGweru, Bubi, Buhera, Chikomba, Gutu, Gokwe, Marange, Mazowe, Bikita, Bulawayo, Mwenezi laseHarare
9.3
Hongu pane kwekutizira nekuwana rubatsiro. Musasa inedzimba dzakahwandika. Dzimba idzi dzinowanikwa ku Gweru, Bubi, Buhera, Chikomba, Gutu, Gokwe, Marange, Mazowe, Bikita, Bulawayo, Mwenezi lase Harare.
10
The shelters offer counselling services, refuge services and survivors can be assisted to access the police and the courts through the shelters. The shelter also offers women different courses in computing, sewing and the like in order to help them be self sufficient after they leave the shelter. Children reading rooms and play centres are also available.
10.2
Izindawo lezi zinikeza amacebo lokuqinisana ekulwiseni udubo lokutshaywa kanye lokuhlukunyezwa ezindlini. Ezinye indawo zokufundela zincedisa abesifazane ukuthi benelise ukuqeqesha emisebenzini yezandla engabaseka ukuthi benelise ukuziphilisa enjengokupheka, ukuthunga, ukweluka kanye leminye imisebenzi ehlukahlukeneyo. Bayemukela njalo abantwana abancane bebanike indawo yokudlalela.
10.3
Kudzimba idzi kunopihwa yambiro nesimbiso yekuyedza kukunda matambudziko ekurohwa nekushungurudzwa mudzimba. Dzimwe nzvimbo dzinodzidzisa madzimai mishando yemawoko kuti vazogona kuzvibatsira kurarama sekubika, kusona kana kuruka, zvemacomputer kana chikoro. Kunotambirwa vana vechidiki vanouya naana Mai vavo uye vanopihwa pekutambira.
11
To contact the Musasa shelters, you can Whatsapp 0775442300 or call the toll free number 08080074.
11.2
IMusasa Project itholakala kuwhatsaapp 0775442300 kumbe ukuba thinta kunombola zamahara ezithi 08080074.
11.3
Musasa Project inowanikwa pa Whatsapp 0775442300 kana kuvafonera panhamba dzemahara 08080074.
1
Sexual harassment is unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature. It can be done by both men and women.
1.2
Kushungurudza munhu kuti aite zvebonde kana zvine chekuita nebonde asingadi.
1.3
Ukuhlukumeza ngezocansi yikuziphatha okungavunyelwanga, Kungenziwa ngabesilisa labesifazane.
2
  • The first type of harassment is where a person feels hostile in an environment they are meant to feel safe in. An example is where someone is uncomfortable in the workplace.


  • Another type is when employment and/or employment decisions for an employee are based on that employees acceptance or rejection of unwelcome sexual behaviour.


  •  Sexual harassment can also take place in public places such as a street where a man/woman is harassed or made to feel uncomfortable relating to a sexual nature.
2.2
  • Kuita kuti munhu asanzwe kugadzikana


  •  Kusungurudza munhu pabasa zvichiita kuti atye kudzingwa basa akaramba kuita zvebonde


  •  Kushungurudza vakadzi munharaunda zvakaita semuma street
2.3
  • Umhlobo wakuqala yilapho umuntu ezizwa esesaba endaweni lapho okumele azizwe ekhululeke khona.


  • Omunye umhlobo yilapho izinqumo zabasebenzi zigoqela ukuvuma loba ukwamukela izenzo zocansi ukuze bathole umsebenzi.


  • Ukuhlukunyezwa ngezocansi kungenzakala endaweni zomphakakthi ezinjengasemgwaqweni, lapho owesilisa lawesifazane wenzwa azizwe engakhululekanga kwezocansi.
3
  • Actual or attempted rape or sexual assault.


  • Unwanted pressure for sexual favours.


  • Unwanted deliberate touching, leaning over, cornering, or pinching.


  • Unwanted sexual looks or gestures.


  • Unwanted letters, telephone calls, or materials of a sexual nature.


  • Unwanted pressure for dates.


  • Unwanted sexual teasing, jokes, remarks, or questions.


  • Referring to an adult as a girl, hunk, doll, babe, or honey.


  • Whistling at someone.


  • Cat calls.


  • Sexual comments.


  • Turning work discussions to sexual topics.


  • Sexual innuendos or stories.


  • Asking about sexual fantasies, preferences, or history.


  • Personal questions about social or sexual life.


  • Sexual comments about a person's clothing, anatomy, or looks.


  • Kissing sounds, howling, and smacking lips.


  • Telling lies or spreading rumours about a person's personal sex life.


  • Neck massage.


  • Touching an employee's clothing, hair, or body.


  • Giving personal gifts.


  • Hanging around a person.


  • Hugging, kissing, patting, or stroking.


  • Touching or rubbing oneself sexually around another person.


  • Standing close or brushing up against a person.


  • Looking a person up and down (elevator eyes).


  • Staring at someone and giving sexually suggestive signals.


  • Facial expressions, winking, throwing kisses, or licking lips.


  • Making sexual gestures with hands or through body movements.
3.2
  • Kuramba munhu achingoda kuti munhu aite zvebonde asingadi


  • Kubata muviri wemukadzi asina kubvuma


  • Kutaura zvinyadzi pane munhu asingazvidi


  • Kumira pedyo nemukadzi zvisina rukudzo


  • Kuramba wakatarisa mukadzi kuti asanzwe kusununguka


  • Kuridzira vakadzi muridzo muroad nekutaura zvinoita kuti vanyare


  • Kubatabata vakadzi zvavasingadi


  • Nedzimwe nzira dzakawanda dzino shungurudza vakadzi
3.3
  • Ukuzama ukudlwengula noma ukuhlukumeza ngokuthethisa okocansi


  • Ukuncindezela ngokufuna ukuthola imivuzo yocansi


  • UKungathinti ngabomu, ukuqamela, ukuncindezela.


  • Ukubukeka kwezocansi okungafuneki noma ukuthinta


  • . Incwadi ezingafuneki, Incingo kanye lempahla


  • . Ukuncindezela ukuhlangana kokuthandana.


  • Ukuhlekisa okungafuneki ngokocansi, kanye lemibuzo.


  • Ukubiza umuntu omdala ngokwentombazane kanye lamabizo esincane.


  • Ukushayela omunye umuntu ukhwelo.


  • Incingo ezingajwayelekanga.


  • Amazwi ocansi.


  • Ukuqugula indawo yokusebenzela ukuthi ibe yindawo yocansi


  • Ingxoxo zocansi.


  • Ukubuza mayelana ngengxonxo zocansi kanye lokwenzakala ngemuva .


  • Imibuzo efihlakeleyo mayelana ngezocansi


  • Amazwi mayelana ngempahla yomuntu langendlela akhangeleka ngayo.


  • Ukufafaza amanga mayelana ngempilo yomuntu mayelana ngezocansi.


  • Ukwelula intamo okuphathelane ngezocansi.


  • Ukubamba inwele zomsebenzi, impahla kanye lomzimba.


  • Ukunika umuntu izipho ezingaphathelananga lomsebenzi.


  • Ukuqamela umuntu


  • Ukumbambatha umuntu lokumuqabuza.


  • Ukuziqamelisa lokusisondeza komunye umuntu


  • Ukukhangela umuntu ngendlela engazwisisekiyo
  • Ukugqoloza umuntu umnika imilayezo yezocansi.


  • Umlayezo ngokucwayisa ngobuso kumbe ngamehlo.


  • Ukutshengisa imilayezo yezocansi ngomzimba


4
The best thing is to notify the nearest police station before the matter becomes serious and how best the situation can be remedied.
4.2
Kumhan’ara kumapurisa ne vakuru pabasa kana pachikoro kuti vazive vatore matanho
4.3
Okulungileyo yikubika indaba emapholiseni aseduze lapho isiga sisanda kwenzakala ukuze Kutholakale indlela efaneleyo eyokucubungula leyo ndaba.
5
Firstly you need to be familiar with your sexual harassment policy as a company or a workplace. Find out who the report goes to and then take action.
5.2
Chekutanga kuziva kuti mutemo wepabasa pacho yakamira sei maererano ne sexual harassment woteedzera zvepabasa. Kana pasina mutemo wepabasa munhu anofanira kumhan’ara kune mununhu waanokwanisa kutaura naye pabasa.
5.3
Okokuqala kumele ubekwazi imithetho yokuhlukunyezwa endaweni yakho yokusebenzela .Kumele ubekwazi ukuthi indaba le ibikwa kubani?
6
Should you be aware that you are being sexually harassed or you start feeling uncomfortable in any situation before you can clearly define it as harassment, it is advised that you keep a record or journal or even evidence of the acts you are finding inappropriate. This will help prove your case once you report the conduct.
6.2
Unogona kutanga nekunyora zvese zvinoiitika pazvinoitika nekuti zvinogona kuzoshandiswa sehumbowo kana nyaya yacho yavakutongwa.
6.3

Nxa ungananzelela ukuthi uyahlukunyezwa ngezocansi kumbe ususizwa ungakhululekangavKuloba yisiphi isimo kumele ubekwazi ukuthi yikuhlukunyezwa.Kuyakhuthazwa ukuthi umuntu ahlele ubukufakazi obungcweleyo ngokwenzakala kwezimo.Lokhu kuyabe kuzancedisa lapho indaba icubungulwa
Rape: Rape is defined the Criminal Law Code of Zimbabwe as forced sexual intercourse. It is where a man has sex with a woman without her consent.

Chibharo kumanikidza munhukadzi kuita bonde kunoitwa nevanhurume

Ukudlwengula: Ukudlwengulwa kuchazwa yiCriminal Law Code of Zimbabwe njengokuphoqelela ukuya ocansini. Kulapho owesilisa enza ucansi nowesifazane ngaphandle kwemvumo yakhe.

1.1
In Zimbabwean where a woman does not consent to sex it is known as rape and where a man does not consent to sex it is known as sexual assault. If a man forces another man to have sexual intercourse it is called sodomy.
1.2
Ezimbabwe nxa owesifazane engavumelani ngezocansi yikudlwengulwa.Nxa owesilisa engavumelani ngezocansi yikuhlukunyezwa. Nxa indonda ingaphoqa enye indonda kwezocansi kubizwa ngokuthi yi sodomy.
1.3
Kumanikidza munhukadzi kuita bonde ndicho chibharo. Murume akamanikidzwa kuita bonde nemunhukadzi inonzi ‘indecent assault’. Murume akamanikidza mumwe murume inonzi ‘sodomy’
2.1
Consent is simply giving someone permission to do something or for something to happen. Consent can be given before an act and can be revoked during an act. Consent must be obtained freely and cannot be given whilst someone is under the influence of drugs.
2.2
Imvumo yikuvumela omunye umuntu ukuthi enze ulutho oluthile. Imvumo Inganikezwa ngaphambi kwesenzo njalo ingahoxiswa ngesenzo.Imvumo kumele itholakale ngokukhululeka futhi ayinikezwa ngesikhathi, lapho omunye umuntu ephethwe yizidakamizwa.
2.3
Zvinoreva mvumo inopihwa nemunhu kuti zvirikudiwa zvigone kuitika. Munhu anemvumo yekuramba nemvumo yake kana kuchinja pfungwa chero achinge ambobvuma. Mvumo ikaita zvekumanikidzwa kana kupihwa munhu akadhakwa kana akanganisa pfungwa dzake haisi pamutemo.
3.1
Giving consent freely means that a person will not be coerced or forced into an act. It means that one must not have been manipulated or blackmailed into committing the act. One must not continue to pressure of badger someone to do something.
3.2
Ukunikeza imvumo ngokukhululekileyo kutsho ukuthi umuntu ngeke aphoqwe loba aphoqelwe esenzweni esithile. Kutsho ukuthi umuntu akufanelanga abanjwe ngamandla kumbe ukwethuselwa ekwenzeni isenzo esithile.
3.3
Mvumo inopihwa pachena zvisina kumanikidzwa kana kutengwa kana kudhakiswa kana kutyisidzirwa
4.1
At present, the minimum age of consent in Zimbabwe is 16.
4.2
EZimbabwe umumtu uvunyelwa ukuvuma ezocansi nxa eliminyaka engamtshumi lasithupha.
4.3
MuZimbabwe munhu anobvumidzwa kutanga kubvuma kuita bonde aine makore 16
5.1
No, resistance can either be verbal or physical.
5.2
Umuntu utshengisa ukuthi kafuni okocansi ngokukhuluma kumbe ukusebenzisa ezinye indlela ezitshengisa ukwala.
5.3
Munhu anoratidza kuti haadi zvebonde nekutaura kana dzimwe nzira dzinoratidza kuti haasikuda
6.1
Yes this is possible. The issue goes back to consent, whenever someone has intercourse with you that is not consensual - it will be regarded as rape.
6.2
Yebo kungenzekala.Indaba iqhamuka ekuvumeni ,loba lapho umuntu ephoqwa ukwenza ezocansi – lokhu kuyikudlengulwa.
6.3
Hongu zvinogona. Itori mhosva pamutemo. Munhu wese chero mukadzi akaroorwa ane kodzero dzekuita zvaanoda nemuviri wake nekupa mvumo yebonde kumurume wake.
7.1
Grooming is when a child or a grown person is trained for sexual abuse. An example would be where a father rapes his child over a long time and so she becomes accustomed to the practice.
7.2
Ukulolonga kulapho ingane kumbe umuntu okhulileyo efundiswa ngezocansi. Isibonelo kulapho ubaba edlwengula umntanakhe esesemcane ukuthi ahle ajayele ukuhlukunyezwa.
7.3
Zvinoreva kurera mwana achidzidziswa kuita bonde. Pane vana baba vanotanga kubata vanasikana vavo chibharo vachiri vana vadiki kuti vakure vakatozvijairira
8.1
Dating violence is when someone you are in a relationship feels obliged and entitled to have sex with you even in times where you do not consent.
8.2
Ukuthandana ngodlame kulapho abantu besilisa bephoqa abesifazane kwezocansi lanxa bezizwa ukuthi kabafuni nxa bethandana.
8.3
Pane tsika inoitwa nevamwe varume nevakomana yekumanikidza vasikana kuita zvebonde vachiri kutodanana
9.1
No, rape is never your fault. It has got nothing to do with how a woman behaves, speaks or dresses
9.2
Cha, ukudlwengula akukaze kube liphutha lomuntu.Akuhlangene lokuziphatha ukuzigqoka lokukhuluma kowesifazane.
9.3
Kwete. Hapana chingaite munhukadzi kuti azvibatise chibharo chero zviite sei nyangwe apfeke zvakaita sei kana kuita sei. Mhosva ingori yemurume amubata chibharo
10.1
Rape culture is a when rape is normalized and perpetuated in a society due to that society's beliefs and attitudes about gender and sexuality. A common example is that girls/women get raped because they wear short and fitting clothing. Often the victim is blamed for the events that took place and justice is seldom done for the victim.
10.2
Isiko lokudlengulwa yilapho ukudlengulwa kwenziwa ngendlela ejayekileyo ngenxa yomqondo othile kumbe ngesiko elithile mayelana ngabesilisa labesifazane. Isibonelo esijwayekileyo yilapho abafazi bedlengulwa ngenxa yokugqoka ingubo ezimfitshane kumbe ezilandela umzimba. Kuvamile ukuthi lowo ohlukunyeziweyo abekwe icala ngalokho okuyabe kwenzakele.
10.3
Itsika nemagariro ekufunga kuti kubata vakadzi chibharo nekuvashungurudza nezvebonde zvinhu zvisina basa nekuti zvinhu zvinongoitwa.
11.1
Usually the police recommend reporting as soon as possible. When you go to the doctor within 72 hours of the incident make sure that they use a rape kit and take a rape test for the purposes of DNA evidence.
11.2
Ngokuvamileyo amapholisa akhuthaza ukuthi umuntu abike ngokuphangisa kungakapheli amahola angamatshumi ayisikhombisa lambili (72) ukuze baqinisekise ukuthola ubufakazi obupheleleyo ngesikhathi esifaneleyo.
11.3
Zvinokurudzirwa kumhan’ara mhosva yechibharo pasati papera 72 hours kana kuti mazuva matatu. Zvinoitirwa kuti humbowo hutorwe nguva ichiripo.
12.1
Should you wish not to go to the police, you may seek medical help which is advised as soon as possible after the incident. This should be within 72 hours for what is known as PEP. PEP is pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is to take measures to prevent HIV infection and for emergency contraception. Counselling, support groups or look for an individual you trust to help you keep yourself mentally healthy. Places to get help include: Parirenyatwa Ward C9 Adult Rape Clinic. Phone 0242 793572/0775 672770 Family Support Trust phone 0712 404416 http://www.fst.co.zw
12.2
Nxa ufisa ukungayi emapholiseni, ungathola usizo lukadokotela ngokuphazima kwelihlo ngemva komonakalo.Lokhu kufanele kube phakathi kwamahola angamatshumi ayisikhombisa lambili (72) .Leli nyathela livikela ukumemetheka kwegcikwane lesandulo sengculaza kanye lenzalo engaphuthuma. Umuntu ulakho ukudinga umuntu amthembileyo kumbe amaqembu awelulekileyo ukuthi amcendise. Indawo zokuthola usizo zigoqela lezi: Parirenyatwa Ward C9 Adult Rape Clinic. Phone 0242 793572/0775 672770 Family Support Trust phone 0712 404416 http://www.fst.co.zw
12.3
Chero munhu akasarudza kusaenda kumapurisa anofanira kuenda kunorapwa nemishonga inodzivirira HIV nekuti anogona kunge aitapurirwa pakubatwa chibharo. Anokurudzirwa zvakare kuti awane rubatsiro rwekunyaradza pfungwa nekutambira zvakaitika Dzimwe nzvimbo dzekuwana rubatsiro ndeidzi: Parirenyatwa Ward C9 Adult Rape Clinic. Phone 0242 793572/0775 672770 Family Support Trust phone 0712 404416 <http://www.fst.co.zw>
 
1
Reproductive rights recognise that couples and individual women have the right to choose how to plan their families and to have the access and information to do so. The rights also include having access to sexual and reproductive healthcare.
1.2
Amalungelo okuzala agoqela abatshadileyo kanye labesifazana ukuthi bazikhethele abakufunayo ekuhleleni imideni yabo.Amalungelo la agoqela ukunakekela kwempilo yocansi kanye lokuzala.
1.3
Ikodzero dzevanhu vakuru kusanganisa nemadzimai kuti varonge mhuri nekubereka vana pamadiro nekuwana zvinovabatsira pakuronga mhuri nezvinodzivirira kudzivirira kubata pamuviri
2
Under the Constitution of Zimbabwe, everyone has the right to dignity, life, privacy, access to information. Everyone has the right to healthcare and marriage rights between men and women. Pregnant women are entitled to have 3 months paid maternity leave.
2.2
Umthetho we Zimbabwe, welula ukuthi wonke umuntu ulamalungelo okuphila njalo lokuthola ulwazi olumfaneleyo. Wonke umuntu ulamalungelo okuphila impilo enhle kanye lamalungelo omtshado phakathi kwabesilisa labesifazane. Abesifazane abazithweleyo bavunyelwe ukuphiwa ikhefu bebhadalwa njalo.
2.3
PaBumbiro remutemo munhu wese ane kodzero yekurarama hupenyu hwakanaka husina njodzi, hwekuremekedzwa nekusabviswa chimiro, kuve nehutano, ruzivo rwekuronga mhuri. Vakadzi vakazvitakura vanekodzero dzekumbomira basa vachibhadharwa kwemwedzi mitatu pavanosununguka vana vavo.
3
Women have the right to be or not be sexually active. Everyone has the right to select a partner of their choice and to be free from harm, violence and abuse. Women have the right to decide who to marry and who not to marry. Both men and women are entitled to be treated with respect and confidentiality when getting sexual reproductive health services.
3.2
Abesifazane balelungelo lokuzikhethela ukuthi benze ucansi loba hatshi. Wonke umuntu ulelungelo lokuzikhethela umuntu wokuthandana laye njalo aphephe ezingozini, udlame kanye lokuhlukunyezwa.Abesifazane balelungelo lokuzikhethela umuntu wokutshada laye. Abesilisa kanye labesifazane balamalungelo okuphathwa ngenhlonipho njalo langemfihlo nxa bethola usizo kanye lolwazi kwezempilo eziphathelane lokuzala.
3.3
Vakadzi vane kodzero yekubereka kana kusabereka vana. Munhu wese anekodzero yekuwanana nekuroorana nemunhu waanoda zvisina kumanikidzwa. Munhu wese ane kodzero yekusarohwa nekusashungurudzwa. Munhu wese ane kodzero yekuchengeterwa zvakanangana nehutano hwake zvisingashambadzwe nekutaurirwa vamwe vanhu vasinei nazvo.
4
Family planning pills in Zimbabwe can be found for free in public health centres and for sale in private facilities. Where sold in local clinics they are available at a very low and affordable price.
4.2
Amaphilisi wokuhlela umdeni eZimbabwe engatholakala mahala ezindaweni zemplilo ezomphakathi futhi athengiswe ezindaweni ezizimele zodwa. Lapho athengiswa khona , atholakala ngentengo ephansi kakhulu.
4.3
Mapiritsi ekuronga mhuri neruzivo rwemashandisiro zvinowanikwa kumaclinic ese emuZimbabwe pachena zvisina mubhadharo. Asi anotengeswa mune dzimwe nzvimbo nemaclinic nemari yakaderera.
5
At present under Zimbabwean law abortion is illegal except in only three circumstances, where the pregnancy was a result of rape or incest and where the birth of the child would cause harm to the mother or the child resulting in serious health issues.
5.2
Njengamanje ngaphansi komthetho waseZimbabwe, Ukukhipha isisu akuvumelekile ngaphandle kwezimo ezintathu kuphela, lapho ukukhulelwa kubangelwa yikudlengulwa kumbe ukuhlangana lezihlobo lapho ukuzalwa kwengane kungadala ingozi kanye lenkinga zempilo ezinkulu.
5.3
Mutemo haubvumidzi kubvisa pamuviri. Asi paine zvikonzero zvishoma pazvinobvumidzwa kunge kana nhumbu yacho yakawanikwa nenzira yekubatwa chibharo nekunge futi kana pamuviri pacho pakaitwa nehama yepadyo sababa kana hanzvadzi yeakazvitakura.
6
No, you will not. The hospital is required to provide post abortion care for you. You may however still be liable for prosecution if the law enforcement agents pursue the matter but it is not up to medical authorities to report you or hand you over.
6.2
Hatshi ngeke .Isibhedlela siyadingeka ukuthi sinikeze ukunakekelwa kokukhipha isisu.Kusenjalo sungetheswa ngecala lokukhipha isisu nxa abenzeli bomthetho belandela indaba le. Asomlandu wabaphathi bokwelapha ukuthi bakubike noma bakunikeze emapholiseni.
6.3
Kwete. Munhu wese anekodzero yekurapwa kana achida rubatsiro maererano nehutano hwake zvisina basa nemakuvariro. Vanowona nezveutano Havana mvumo yekumhan’arira vanhu vanenge vauya kuzorapwa asi vanogona havo kuzobatwa nemhosva yekubvisa nhumbu yacho zvisinei nekurapwa kwavo
7
Local clinics offer free prenatal care to pregnant women to prepare them and educate them about the impending birth. Expectant fathers are also encouraged to attend and assist the mothers to be.
7.2
Izibhedlela zilakho ukunakekela mahala abafazi abazithweleyo ukubalungiselela njalo lokubafundisa ngokuzala okuzayo. Obaba abalindele abantwana bayakhuthwaza ukuthi baseke omama.
7.3
Madzimai akazvitakura anekodzero yekubatsirwa maererano nepamuviri nekusununguka kumaclinic nekuzvipatara zvisingabhadharwi.
8
HIV/AIDS testing can be accessed through local clinics and the New Start Centre specifically deals with such testing and counseling
8.2
Accordion Sample Description
Accordion Sample Description
8.3
Kuma clinic nekuzvipatara nekuma New Start Centre anowanikwa munzvimbo dzakasiyana munyika mese
9
Ideally HIV treatment in the form of ARV drugs are free or where they are not they are provided in local and public health services for a very small fee. Pregnant women have access to free HIV treatment.
9.2
Ngokufanele ukwelatshwa kwegcikwane lengculaza kukhululekile njalo lapho okungekho kwamahala ,kuyanikezwa ukwelatshwa ngentengo ephansi.Abesifazane abakhulelwe belatshwa igcikwane mahala.
9.3
Mishonga inobatsira vane utachiona hwe HIV haitengeswi kuzvipatara zvehurumende. Madzimai akazvitakura anorapwa HIV mahara.
1
It is the provision of financial support for a person's living expenses, or any other support provided for material upkeep. In this case it is support for dependents such as minor children or children who are not capable of supporting themselves financially. It is ordinarily paid until children turn 18 or until the child is capable of sustaining themselves financially before or after 18.
1.2
Ukuhlanzwa lokuxhaswa ngezimali zendleko zomuntu eziphathelane lokuphila, loba olunye usizo olungenelisa ukuhlanza umuntu. Kulesisimo kwandiswe ukusekelwa abantwana abancane kumbe labo abengenelisi ukuzigcina ngokwemali. Ngokwejayelekileyo imali le ijayele ukuhlanza umuntu ekufikeni eminyakeni eyisitshiyangalo mbili.
1.3
Imari inobhadharwa kuchengeta vana vadiki vasati vasika makore 18 ekuberekwa kana kuti vana vakura vasinga. Inobhdharwa kuchengeta mudzimai kana murume vakaroorana zviri pamutemo.
2
It consists of regular payments in cash or kind for provisions such as food, accommodation, school fees, medical expenses, clothes, entertainment, travel, uniforms, pocket money etc.
2.2
Kuhlanganisela inkokhelo ezijwayelekileyo ngokukhokha imali loba ezinye indleko ezinjengo kudla, indawo yokuhlala, isikolo ukwelatshwa, indleko zokuhamba kanye lokunye.
2.3
Mari yechikoro, chikafu, hembe, mari yechikoro, rent nezvimwe zvakawanda zvinoshandiswa mukurarama.
3
Yes. It is a criminal offence to fail or refuse to pay maintenance if there is a maintenance order.
3.2
Yebo. Kuyisenzo sobugebengu ukwehluleka loba ukwenqaba ukukhokha isondlo uma kulesondlo sokunakekela.
3.3 4
This means a person who is legally responsible for paying maintenance and a has a duty to do so such as a parent or legal guardian. It can be someone appointed by a court to have that responsibility.
4.2
Lokhu kutsho umuntu ofanele ukukhokha isondlo ngomthetho njalo elomsebenzi wokwenza njengomzali loba isihlobi.Kungaba yiloba ofakwe yinkantolo.
4.3
Mubereki wese wemwana waasingagari naye uyezve munhu wese ane court order kuti aibhadhare.
5
A custodial parent meaning the parent who has custody of the child and lives with the child can apply for maintenance from the non-custodial parent. Anyone else like grandparents, aunts, uncles and relatives who are looking after a minor child can apply for it from the person with the responsibility for paying it. Probations officers can also apply on behalf of the dependent child. In addition children can also apply for maintenance on their own if they reach 18 years and are not yet self -sustaining meaning not capable of supporting themselves financially.
5.2
Umzali womntwana kusitsho umzali ogcina umtwana njalo ehlala laye engenelisa ukufaka isicelo sokulondolozwa kulowo mzali ongekho emthethweni .Loba ogogo, omalume kanye lezinye izihlobo ezinakekela ingane zingacela isondlo kulowo muntu olomlandu wokulondoloza leyo ngane. Abomthetho bengenelisa njalo ukucela isondlo egameni lomntwana .Abantwana balokho ukucela isondlo sokulondolozwa nxa bengafika iminyaka elitshumi lasitshiyangalombili.
5.3
Mubereki wese ane mwana waanogara naye achichengeta.
6
At all magistrates courts in the country.
6.2
Kuzo zonke izinkantolo zikamantshi kuleli zwe.
6.3
Kuma Magistrates ese ari munyika kumaCivil Court.
7
The application is free except for very basic administration charges. There is no need for a lawyer but this can be advised for those who need one. The Maintenance court provides forms which give guidelines for making the application so anyone can apply on their own without the need for a lawyer.
7.2
Uhlelo lokusebenza okuphathelane lesondlo lukhululekile ngaphandle kwezindleko zokuphatha.Asikho isidingo sokudinga igqwetha kodwa kuyakhuthazwa kulabo abalesizatho sokudinga igqwetha.Inkantolo yesondlo iyanikeza indlela zokukwenza inhlelo zesondlo ukuze iloba ngubani engenelisa ukuzenzela kungela qgwetha.
7.3
Hazvitori mari yakanyanya. Zvinoda shoma inodiwa necourt. Vanoda magweta vanobhadhara ikoko yavatenderana zvisinei neyeku court.
8
The applicant has to include all the costs that are involved in looking after the child including all the costs mentioned in Paragraph 2 above for each child. The applicant has to know the residential or work address of the person they are claiming the maintenance from ie the Respondent.
8.2
Omangalayo kumele afake zonke izindleko eziphathelane lokunakekela kuhlanganiselwa lalezo ezibalulwe kundima yesibili nganye ingane.Omangalayo kumele azi ikheli lokuhlala loba elemsebenzini kulowo abakhangelele isondlo kuye.
8.3 9
The maintenance claim is in the form of a summons. It can be served on the Respondent by the Messenger of Court or the Police upon request. The Respondent will be summoned to come to court on the given date on the summons.
9.2
Isicelo sokugcinwa kwesondlo sinjengokubizwa. Kungenzwa ngummangalelwa ongumthunywa wenkantolo loba amapholisa nxa eceliwe. Omangalelwayo uzanikwa ilanga lokubuya enkantolo.
9.3
Kumbiro yacho inenge iri samanisi rinopihwa baba kana mai vemwana varikukumbirwa maintenance yacho. Rinoendeswa nemapurisa kana kuti mutumwa wedare (Messenger of Court). Rinonyora zuva rinogarwa dare richisungira kuti kuuyiwe kucourt.
10
The Presiding officer makes an enquiry into the financial means of the Respondent to assess what they can afford in light of the claim and their other financial obligations and what they are offering to pay if any. At the end of the enquiry the magistrates gives an order for a certain amount of money that they consider is fair and reasonable in the circumstances. They have to ensure that the Respondent is legally liable and in consideration of their ability and capacity to pay it.
10.2
Isikhulu esiphezulu senza uphenyo ezimalini zalowo omangalelwayo kuhlolwa kabanzi lokho abenelisa ukukukhokhela lezinye indleko abenelisa ukuzikhokhela nxa zikhona. Ekupheleni kophenyo omantshi banikeza umlayelo wemali abayicabangela ukuthi ilungile njalo ilengqondo esimeni selizwe. Inkantolo kumele inanzelele ukuthi lo omangelelweyo ukuthi wenelisa ukukhokha leso sondlo.
10.3

Kudare Magistrate anowongorora umbowo hwaunzwa nearikukumbira maintenance. Anozobvunza aunzwa kudare achida kuti anzwisise nekuwona kuti anokwanisa kubhadhara here mari irikukumbirwa.
11
The presiding officer considers these following factors
  1. the general standard of living of the responsible person and the dependant, including their social status;


  2. the means of the responsible person and the dependant;


  3. the number of persons to be supported;


  4. whether the dependant or any of his parents is able to work and, if so, whether it is         desirable that he or she should do so.
11.2
Isikhulu esiphezulu sikhangela lezi zici ezilandelayo
  1. izinga elijwayelekile lokuphila lomuntu ophetheyo kanye lomuntu othembekileyo kanye lesimo senhlalakahle.
  2. Izindlela zomuntu olomlandu kanye lalowo osekelwayo.
  3. Inani labantu okufanele basekelwe
  4. Iloba lo osekelwayo kanye labazali bakhe benelisa ukusebenza nxa kunjalo kuhlolwe ukuthi kufanele yini.
 
11.3
  1. Magariro emunhu aunzwa kudare nemamiriro ehupenyu hwake
  2. Hupfumi hhwemunhu aunzwa kudare
  3. Vana vanoda kuchengetwa
  4. Kuti vabereki nevana vanoda kuchengetwa vanogona kushanda here nekugona kuzviriritira
12
The maintenance court may direct that the payment be paid regularly directly through the Respondent’s wages or that they deposit the money themselves into the custodian’s bank account.The money can also be paid through the Clerk of Court.
12.2
Inkantolo yesondlo ingabhalela ukuthi inkokhelo ingakhokhwa njani ebhanga kulowo olondolozwayo ebhanga kumbe bekhokha ngoNobhala WeNkantolo.
12.3
Inogona kubhadharwa kudare kuna Clerk of Court kana kuti ku account yekubank yemunhu anochengeta mwana.
13
Yes it can be cancelled when the dependants no longer have need for it such as when they turn 18 or become self-sustaining whichever comes sooner. It can also be increased if there is need for it and the need has been proved. It could also happen that the person who was held responsible for paying maintenance is proved to have no such responsibility for example if a paternity test proves that a man is not the father of the child he was ordered to pay maintenance for. It can also be cancelled or varied when the Respondent’s circumstances change such as if they become incapacitated. The court holds another enquiry into the changed circumstances. The party wishing for the maintenance order to be cancelled or varied downwards or upwards makes an application for cancellation or variation.
13.2
Yebo ingahle ivinjwe nxa abalondolozwayo bengasadingakali njengalapho sebeleminyaka elitshumi lasitshiya ngalombili.Kungabuya kwandiswe nxa kulesidingo sayo njalo kuqakathekile. Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi umuntu olomlandu wokukhokha isondlo avinjwe nxa kungatholokala ukuthi lowo muntu osoyise wengane. Ingavinjwa kumbe ingaguquka inhlelo leyo Inkantolo ingenza olunye uphenyo. Iqembu elifisa ukuguqula kumbe ukutshintsha isicelo sesondlo lingenza isicelo.
13.3
Hongu kana dare raona zvakakodzera kuti imiswe kana kuchinjwa yoderedzwa kana kukwidzwa. Anoda kuti ichinjwe kana kuti ikanzurwe anoenda kudare nechikumbiro nezvikonzero zvake kuti awonese dare kuti rimunzwe. Kana paine chachinja pamararamiro emwana ari kuchengetwa kana kuti munhu arikubhadhara chinoita kuti mari ichinjwe zvinozeyiwa nedare.
14
It is a criminal offence to refuse to comply with a maintenance order. Any person who fails to comply with any direction made against him shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level four or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.
14.2
Kuyisenzo sobugebengu ukwenqaba ukuhambisana lomlayelo wokugcinwa. Iloba ngubani owehlulekayo iloba yisiphi isizatho kumele ahlawuliswe imali engekho ngaphezu kwebanga lwesine okwesikhathi esingadluli izinyanga ezintathu loba kokubili ukubotshwa.
14.3
Anosungwa kwemwedzi inokwana mitatu nekubhadhara faindi(fine). Zviri panze pemutemo kuramba kubhadhara mari yakatarwa nemutemo.
15
Anyone who is aggrieved with any decision of the maintenance court can appeal to the High Court.
15.2
Iloba ngubani ongajabulanga yiloba yisiphi isinqumo senkantolo ulakho ukuhamba enkantolo yaphezulu.
15.3
Kana paine asina kugutsikana nemutongo wedare anogona kupira nyaya yake nezvinyunyuto kudare re High Court
1
Labour and Property rights are rights that involve the ability to earn money, to freely work in a place and to own property. The property may be movable (a car for example) or immovable (land or a house for instance).
1.2
Amalungelo ezisebenzi lezakhiwo ngamalungelo agoqela ukuthola imali ,ukusebenza ngokukhululeka endaweni ethile lokuba lempahla.Impahla ingaba ngefuqekayo njengemota loba impahla engafuqekiyo njengendlu.
1.3
Ikodzero dzine chekuita nezvehupfumi nekushanda kuwana mari yekurarama. Vanhu pavanotenga midziyo nekupihwa muripo pabasa ravashanda zvinochengetedzwa nemutemo.
2
This means that a woman is allowed to play her part in the economy. Women have a right to be paid a justified amount in return for their work and can use that money according as she sees fit. Women have the right to food, housing, healthcare, education and social protection. Property rights mean that a woman has the right to keep or dispose of her property as she wishes.
2.2
Lokhu kutsho ukuthi umuntu wesifazane ulakho ukudlala indima yakhe kwezomnotho. Kutsho ukuthi umsebenzi awenzayo kumele abhadalwe. Ulelungelo lokuthi abhadalwe njalo asebenzise imali yakhe ngendlela efaneleyo. Ulelungelo lokudla, indlu, impilakahle ukufunda kanye lokuvikelwa . Amalungelo empahla atsho ukuthi umuntu wesifazane ulelungelo lokugcina kumbe ukunika abanye abantu impahla leyo ngendlela efanele.
2.3
Vanhukadzi vanekodzero dzekuwana kurarama vachiwana chikafu, pekugara, hutanodzidzo nekuchengetedzwa. Vanhukadzi vane kodzero dzekutenga nekutengesa zvinhu zvavakazvitengera nemari yavo
3
No this is not allowed by law. This will count as unfair discrimination. Women are entitled to equal pay for equal work. Payments should not be based on gender but rather the work input of the worker.
3.2
Hatshi abantu besifazane balelungelo lokuthola imali lokusebenza okulingeneyo lokwabantu besilisa nxa besenza umsebenzi ofanayo.
3.3
Kwete. Madzimai ane kodzero dzekuwana hupfumi nekushanda nekutambira mari yakaenzana nevarume kana vachiita basa rakaenzana.
4
It is possible and very common to be victimised for refusing sexual advances but it is illegal. The perpetrator can be arrested and sued for damages and ordered to reinstate the woman to her job.
4.2
Kungaphandle komthetho ukuxotsha lokuhlukumeza abesifazane emsebenzini ngenxa yokwala ezocansi.Owesilisa owenza njalo ulakho ukubotshwa kanye lokuthi akhokhe mali.Inkantolo ilakho ukunika isiphetho sokuthi umuntu wesifazane abuyele emsebenzini wakhe.
4.3
Zviri panze pemutemo kudzinga nekushungurudza vakadzi pabasa nekuti varamba zvebonde. Murume akadaro anogona kusungiswa nekuripiswa mari. Court inogona kuti mukadzi adzorerwe pabasa pake
5
Under the Labour Act, a woman is allowed to take paid maternity leave. A woman should present her a certificate from a doctor or a nurse confirming the pregnancy and pending birth. If the woman had leave days which she had not used in the last 6 months before requesting leave, she will be entitled to 75% of her salary. Where she has no leave days, she will be entitled to 60%.
5.2
Omama abazithweleyo balamalungelo wokuma umsebenzi okwenyanga ezintathu, ukuthi bayekhululeka njalo benikwa imali yabo. Kufanele ukuthi behambise amaphepha atshengisa ukuthi bazithwele lokwazisa lapho abazahamba khona.
5.3
Madzimai akazvitakura ane kodzero yekumbomira basa kwemwedzi mitatu kuti vanosununguka vachitambiriswa mari. Vanofanira kuendesa magwaro anoratidza kuti vakazvitakura kubasa kwavo nekuzivisa pavanoenda kunosununguka.
6
Yes, there has been a growing trend that men may also take paternity leave to help with the new born baby. Although this has not been explicitly stated in the law, there is nothing that particularly prohibits such a provision.
6.2
Abasilisa abalawo amalungelo emthethweni awokuma umsebenzi lapho okubelethwa khona abantwababo. Kodwa akula okubavimbayo ukuthi bethathe amalanga nxa bengavunyelwa emsebenzini.
6.3
Varume havana kodzero pamutemo yekumbomira basa panozvarwa vana vavo. Asi hapana chinovarambidza kuti vatore mazuva kana vabvumirwa kubasa.
7
Domestic workers have the same rights as any other worker. They have the right to be paid sufficiently and on time. They also have the right not to be abused by employers meaning they should not be subjected to things like beatings. Live-in domestic workers are entitled to healthy living conditions and a decent diet
7.2

Amalungelo abantu abasebenza endlini ayafana lamalungelo abanye abasebenzi. Balelungelo lokubhadalwa imali efaneleyo njalo ngesikhathi. Balelungelo lokungahlukunyezwa ngabaqatshi njalo akuvumelekanga ukuthi betshaywe. Kumele behlale endaweni enhle njalo bethole ukudl okwakha umzimba nxa behlala lapho abasebenzela khona.
7.3
Vashandi vemumba vanekodzero dzakafanana nedzevashandi vese. Vanekodzero yekubhadharwa mari yakakwana uye nenguva. Havafaniri kushungurudzwa nekurohwa. Vanofanira kugara pakanaka nekudya zvakakodzera kana vachigara pavanoshanda.
8

Under the Domestic Violence Act, it is an offence to force your partner to quit her job.
8.2
Akukho emthethweni ukuphoqa umuntu ukuthi atshiye umsebenzi. Bayamangalelwa Emapholiseni.
8.3
Zviripanze pemutemo kumanikidza munhu kusiya basa. Vanomhan’arirwa kumapurisa.
9
Yes. Constitutionally men and women are to be treated fairly and equally before the law. Women can own land, possess land and any other property as they so wish and can afford.
9.2
Yebo. Ngokusemthethweni abesifazane labesilisa kumele baphathwe ngokufanayo njalo ngokulingeneyo.Abafazi benelisa ukuzithengela lokuthenga okwehlukeneyo okunjengomhlabathi lenye impahla.
9.3
Kwete. Bumbiro remutemo rinopa vakadzi nevarume kodzero dzakangofanana pakuwana nekutsvaga mari nehupfumi. Vakadzi vanogona kuzvitengera kana kutengesa zvinhu zvavakazvishandira.
10
Yes. All laws including traditional practices should be in line with the Constitution and it dictates equality of the sexes. Preference for inheritance is given to the wife and children.
10.2
Yebo .Yonke imithetho egoqela amasiko kumele ihambelane lomthetho welizwe. Njalo igoqela wonke umuntu ngokufanayo ngendlela elingeneyo. Kuvamile ukuthi ilifa linikwe abantwana lomfazi lowo ofelweyo.
10.3
Hongu. Bumbiro remutemo rine simba kukunda mimwe mitemo yese chero yechivanhu. Vakadzi vese vakaroorwa vanekodzero yekuwana nhaka pazvinhu zvevarume vavo. Mutemo unotarisa mudzimai afirwa pamberi pehama dzemufi.
1
Anyone under the age of 18 is considered a child in Zimbabwe.
1.2
Iloba ngubani ongaphansi kweminyaka elitshumi lasithupha uthathwa njengomntwana eZimbabwe.
1.3
Munhu wese aripasi pemakore 18 mwana mudiki.
2
It is work that deprives children of their rights such as to education and the like. It can be mental, physical, social or morally dangerous.
2.2
Kungumsebenzi ovimba abantwana kumalungelo abo njengemfundo lokunye, kungaba yingqondo , ngokomzimba , kwezenhlalo loba ukuziphatha.
2.3
Kushandisa vana zvisiri zvezera ravo. Zvinovatorera kodzero dzavo.
3
Child slavery refers to cases mostly of factories or situations where children are trafficked or captured and forced to be child soldiers, factory workers or forced as domestic workers without pay. This is reportable to the police.
3.2
Ukugqilazwa kwabantwana kutholakala endaweni zokusebenzela lapho abantwana bethengiswa kumbe bephoqwa ukuba ngamasotsha abantwana kumbe ukuphoqwa ukuba yizisebenzi zendlini ezingela mbhadalo .Lokhu kungabikwa emapholiseni.
3.3
Pasi rose pane dambudziko rekubata vana hunhapwa. Vanobiwa kuti vanoshadiswa mabasa akasiyana kunge pakurwa hondo nekushanda kumapurazi mafactory nemudzimba zvisina mubhadharo.
4

Child abuse covers a wide range of things. From neglect, to physical, psychological and mental maltreatment. This can be by a parent or by a caregiver (nanny, maid, creche/pre-school teacher etc). It should be reported to the police and organisations that deal with child welfare
4.2
Ukuhlukunyezwa kwabantwana kugoqela izinto ezinengi ezehlukeneyo ukunganakwa, ukuhlukunyezwa komzimba, kanye lokwengqondo kungaba ngumzali kumbe umnakeleli (endaweni zokufundela)
4.3
Kubata vana zvanashata nekuvashungurudza. Kurova vana, kana kuvatuka, kuvashungurudza pfungwa kana kuvasiya nekuvachengeta. Zvinogona kuitwa nevabereki kana vamwe vanochengeta vana. Zvinomhan’arwa kumapurisa nevanoita zvekodzero dzevana
5
The 2019 ConCourt judgment was specific to judicial corporal punishment. This means that beating cannot be used as a form of punishment in cases regarding children. The ruling, however, did not ban beatings by parents and by disciplinarians in schools. Disciplining your child by beating is not illegal.
5.2
Ukwahlulelwa kwe Con Court ka 2019 kwakuqonde ngqo ekujezisweni okuphathelane lokulaywa.Lokhu kutsho ukuthi ukutshaya ngeke kasetshenziswa ukulaya umtwana. Isinqumo lesi asivimbanga ukutshaywa kwabantwana ngabazali babo kanye lasezikolo. Ukutshaya umntwana kusemthethweni.
5.3
Constitutional Court yakarambidza kuti matare ape mutongo wekurova vana. Hazvina kurambidzwa kuti vana varangwe nekuvadzora misikanzwa. Vabereki nezvikoro vanobvumidzwa kuraya vana zvakaenzerana.
6
In a divorce, the best interest of the child are considered. Where there is conflict over custody, the court will consider what is best for the child and make arrangements accordingly.
6.2
Nxa kungaba lokwehlukana kukhangelwa ingane kakhulu, nxa kulokulwisana phezu komntwana inkantolo icubungula ngokufaneleyo amanyathela angcono emntwaneni.
6.3
Pese panotongwa nyaya dzine chekuita nevana panotariswa chakanakira vana ivavo kuti vapihwe ani kusanganisira zera ravo nezvimwe zviripo pakurarama kwevana ivavo.
7
Yes. Where it is specifically stated that that child can inherit in terms of that estate the child can. As well as in instances where the deceased's name is on the child's birth certificate as mother or father.
7.2
Yebo. Lapho kuchazwe ngokucacileyo ingane ingathola ilifa nxa kukhangelwa umbhalo welifa.Lalapho ibizo likamufi likhona encwadini yokuzalwa yomntwana.
7.3

Hongu. Vana vakaberekwa kunze vane kodzero yekuwanawo zvakaenzana nevana vakaberekwa nevanhu vakaroorana kana mubereki wake ashaya.
8
Under the Prisoners Act, infants can accompany their mother into prison until the age of two. Nothing so far has been brought on a case where the father is the only surviving parent of an infant.
8.2
Ngaphansi komthetho wababotshiweyo, osane bengahamba labonina enkantolo beze befike iminyaka emibili. Akukabi lomthetho lapho uyise enguye umzali ophilayo ngaleso sikhathi.
8.3
Pamutemo we Prisoner’s Act vana vadiki vanobvumidzwa kuenda nemubereki wake kana apihwa mutongo wekugara mujeri. Vana vanowanzoenda nevanaMai vavo hapasati paita nyaya inoita kuti vana Baba vanochengeta vana vavo vaendewo navo kujeri asi mutemo haurambidzi.
9
If a hospital withholds the birth record due to unpaid fees it is illegal. In cases where there is no birth record like for home births the Registrar General can make a special exemption after a written application.
9.2
Kuvamile ukuthi isibhedlela lapho ingane ezalelwa khona ibe lombhalo wokuzalwa wengane. Nxa isibhedlela singabamba incwadi yomntwana ngenxa yemali engakhokhwanga, akukho emthethweni. Esimeni lapho umntwana engaziwa kungabhalwa incwadi ekhethelekile KuRegistrar General echaza lesi simo njalo ekhethelekile.
9.3
Zviripanze pemutemo kuti chipatara chirambe kupa vabereki mabirth records.Kana pasina birth record birth certificate inogona kupihwa chete. Registar General anongoda kupihwa tsamba inotsanangura kuti chakashayisa birth record.
1
This is a written agreement between two people who are about to get married which sets out the terms of ownership and sharing of assets, liabilities and other matrimonial affairs.
1.1
It contains terms and conditions regarding how the shared property which will be acquired will be shared when the couple divorces. It contains details of earnings and debts acquired before the marriage and gives for provision for future earnings and property acquired during the subsistence of the marriage

Who prepares the agreements? Lawyers who are also Notaries Public draft and executing and registering them in the Deeds Registries Office.

Are pre-nuptial agreements relevant in Zimbabwe? We already enunciated the fact that our marriage system is out of community of property. There is no equal sharing without justification. Property is already automatically separate therefore to enter into a pre-nuptial agreement means a couple will be intending to share their property equally. Many people and radio deejays in particular are very fond of talking about prenuptial agreements and prescribing them as a way of safeguarding and separating property in the event of a divorce. Quite frankly this is misleading because to do so is to do the very opposite here in Zimbabwe. Prenuptial agreements are common in countries with marriage in community of property laws such as South Africa or USA. They are not common though not unheard of in Zimbabwe because property is already separated so couples do not see a use for them unless they want to join their property and share it equally.
1.2
Lawyers who are also Notaries Public draft and executing and registering them in the Deeds Registries Office.
2
We already enunciated the fact that our marriage system is out of community of property. There is no equal sharing without justification. Property is already automatically separate therefore to enter into a pre-nuptial agreement means a couple will be intending to share their property equally. Many people and radio deejays in particular are very fond of talking about prenuptial agreements and prescribing them as a way of safeguarding and separating property in the event of a divorce. Quite frankly this is misleading because to do so is to do the very opposite here in Zimbabwe. Prenuptial agreements are common in countries with marriage in community of property laws such as South Africa or USA. They are not common though not unheard of in Zimbabwe because property is already separated so couples do not see a use for them unless they want to join their property and share it equally.
3
This is a written agreement between parties before they get married which sets out the terms of ownership and sharing of assets, liabilities and other matrimonial affairs during the marriage and upon divorce.
3.2
Umbalo okhuluma ukuthi impahla yabelwana njani endlini kumbe ekwehlukaneni kwabantu.
3.3
Igwaro rinotaura kuti zvinhu zvinosheyana sei mumba kana kuzogoverwa sei pakurambana
4
It contains terms and conditions regarding how the shared property which will be acquired during the course of the marriage will be shared when the couple divorces. It contains details of earnings and debts acquired before the marriage and gives for provision for future earnings and property acquired during the subsistence of the marriage.
4.2
Iyachasisa ngempahla ekhona abantu bengakathathani lokwazisa okuzathengwa lokuzatholwa sebesendlini lokuzaqanyulwa phakathi laphakathi nxa abantu sebesehlukana.
4.3
Inorondedzera midziyo iripo vanhu vasati varoorana nekudoma kuti zvavachazotenga nekuwana vave mumba pamwe chete nemari zvichazogurwa nepakati pakurambana.
5
Lawyers who are also Notary Publics draft execute and register them in the Deeds Registries Office.
5.2
Amagqwetha ahlezi engabameli beNotary Public.
5.3
Magweta anova zvakare maNotary Public
6
Yes but they are rarely used or required because the marriage system in Zimbabwe is out of community of property. There is no automatic equal sharing of property. Equal sharing only happens when there is proper justification for it. Matrimonial property is already automatically separate therefore to enter into a pre-nuptial agreement is to sign up for equal sharing.
6.2
Yebo ayasebenza kodwa kukalutshwane ngoba umthetho walapha uthi abantu bengathathana bayagcina impahla yabo abayabe belakho lalokho abazakuthenga bengathathana. Inkantolo iyahlanganisa impahla inike sakuthanda nxa kulesidingo esinjengaleso.
6.3
Hongu asi kashoma nekuti mutemo wemuno unoti vanhu vakaroorana vanochengeta zvinhu zvavo zvavanenge vainazvo kana zvavanozotenga chero vazoroorana. Court inongosanganisa zvinhu yogova madiro ayo kana paine chikonzero chekudaro.
7.
In Zimbabwe matrimonial property is already separated so they are only signed if married people want to own and share property equally and distribute it equally if they divorce.
7.2
Isebenza nxa abantu befuna ukwabelana impahla ngokulingeneyo kumbe ngenye indlela abavumelana ngayo.
7.3
Inoshanda kana vanhu vachida kusheya midziyo nepakati kana neimwe nzira yavakabvumirana
1.1
a) A decree of divorce from the High Court incorporates the terms of the divorce
b) by mutual agreement in a consent paper.
c) Distribution by the High Courtin the case of a civil marriage or in registered customary law unions by order of the Magistrates Court
d) By a pre-nuptial contract
1.2
a) Kuyathathwa umbhalo wokwehlukanisa umtshado enkantolo yaphezulu iHigh court.
b) Ukuvumelana kwabantu ababili ngokubhalelana phansi.
c) INkantolo yaphezulu ihigh court iyabela impahla nxa kulokungazwisisani
d) Ukusaina okuthiwa yi pre-nuptal contract.
1.3