Questions and Answers

0.1
Chii chinonzi nhaka?

Zvinoreva zvinhu zvemufi senge mari nemidziyo chero chipi nechipi zvacho kusanganisira nezvikwereti. Nhaka inogona kuve ine hupfumi kana kusava nezvakawanda. Asi munhu wese anotarisirwa kunge anga ainewo zvinhu chero zvishoma zvakadii, chero hembe shomanana zvadzo; yese inhaka. Parizvino nekushanduka kwezvinhu, vanhu vavakuitawo zvinhu zvinopinda panhaka muma computers nepa internet senge ma bank accounts, mapikicha, mumhanzi nezvimwewo zvakakosha. Zvese izvi zvinofanira kutaurwa kuti mutemo wedu ukwanise kubata zvese izvi.

Kuyini ilifa?

Le yimpahla yomuyi; igoqela impahla yakhe yonke lezikwelede ayabe elazo ngesikhathi esaphila. Ilifa leli lingabe ligoqela impahla enengi kumbe encane ngakho umuntu wonke kumele ahlele ukuthi impahla yakhe yenziweni engafa kungakhathalekile lokuthi impahla inengi kumbe inlutshwana. Umuntu wonke ulakho alakho njalo lokhu kulilifa ngemva kokufa kwakhe. Ngokuguquka kwezinto, abantu sebegcina impahla zabo kuma computer laku internet okufana lama bank accounts, imifanekiso , izingoma lemiculo kanye lokunye okuqakathekileyo.Konke lokhu akukathuthukiswa kwele Zimbabwe njalo okwakathesi sizagxila kulokho okuvamileyo okufana lemali, izigqoko, izimota lezindlu . Ngakho ke, sikhangelele ukuthi sicubungule siphathise njalo ekuthuthukisweni kwelifa elitholakala kumbe eligcinwa kusetshenziswa indlela zakulezinsuku nxa abantu befuna ukwazi okunengi.

What is a deceased estate?

This is the property that belongs to a deceased person (i.e. a person who has died); it includes assets and debts which they accrued during their life. Deceased estates can be very large or very small and everyone should plan what should be done with their estate after they die even if they own a little bit and their estate is very small. Almost every person owns something and it goes into their deceased estate when they die. An interesting development in recent years is the concept of digital assets. These pertain to ownership of assets owned and consumed electronically such as online bank accounts, computer programmes, applications, accounts, photographs, music etc. This concept is still very undeveloped Zimbabwe and for now we will concentrate on the usual tangible assets like money, clothes, vehicles and houses. However, we look forward to also exploring and helping to develop the concept of inheritance of digital assets if people want to know more.

0.2
Chii chinoitika kunhaka yemushakabvu?

Marudzi ese ane nzira dzawo dzekugova nhaka yemufi. Asi imhosva huru kuparadza kana kugova kana kushandisa nhaka zvisina mvumo. Zvinhu zvemufi wese zvinofanirwa kunonyoresa kwa Master veku High Court. Mahofisi avo anowanikwa futi kuma Magistrates Courts ese ari mumatunhu akasiyana enyika. Zvinofanirwa kuitwa mazuva makumi nemana asati adarika kubva mukufa. Imhosva huru kusanyoresa kana kunyoresa zvekunyepa.

Kuyini okwenzakalayo kumpahla yomuyi?

Isiko lesiko lilendlela yokwabela impahla yomuyi. Kulicala ukuthatha lokufihla impahla yomuyi kulicala ikakhulu nxa kungela mvumo yalowo oyabe ekhethwe ukuthi abe nguye olemvumo yoku ayabe leyo mpahla.Yonke impahla kamuyi kumele iyebhaliswa kuMaster wedale le High Court kulandelwa umthetho obona ngokwabelwa kuhle kwempahla owe Administration of Estates Act. Ukubhalisa lokhu kumele kwenziwe kumalanga alitshumi lane umuntu etshonile .Kulicala ukungabhalisi impahla yomuyi kumbe ukubhalisa impahla engayisyo .Ukubhalisa lokhu kwenziwa yihofisi ka Master wedale le High Court kumbe kumadale abo mantshi elizweni lonke jikelele.

What happens to a person’s property when they die?

Every culture has its own way of disposing of and distributing the property of a deceased person. Grabbing or hiding or abusing deceased estate property is a criminal offence as is using it without the authority of the appointed executor. It is a legal requirement to register and administer all deceased estates in accordance with the Administration of Estates Act. A deceased estate is supposed to be registered with the Master within 14 days of the death. Failure to register a deceased estate or concealing or falsifying information regarding deceased estates is a criminal offence. Registration is done at the Master of the High Court’s Office and through magistrates courts throughout the country.

0.3
Chii chinonyoreswa kana munhu afa?

Kunonyoreswa zvinhu zvese zvaive nemufi kunyanya zvihombe senge dzimba, mari, motokari nezvikwereti. Hama dzepedyo dzainyatsoziva mufi kana kugara naye nekuziva zvinhu zvake ndidzo dzinofanira kuzvinyoresa.

Kuyini okumele kwenziwe umuntu engafa kumbe engatshona?

Ngemva kokwazisa idale ngempahla yonke ebisebizweni likamuyi ezigoqela phakathi izinto ezifana lezindlu ,izimota lezikwelede zakhe.Lokhu kwenziwa kuhle yizihlobo zakhe ezifana lamalunga emuli kumbe umka muyi.

What needs to be done when a person dies?

After notifying the Master all the deceased’s assets and belongings have to be identified and listed including all their movable and immovable property, household and personal effects. This is best done by very close relatives such as spouses or close family members.

0.4
Ndiani anopihwa nhaka?

Kana mufi akasiya anyora kana kutaura zvaaida kuti zviitike nezvinhu zvake, izvo ndizvo zvinotevedzwa kana zvichikwanisika uye kana zviripamutemo. Asi kana akanga asina kusiya anyora:

i. Kana mufi anga akaroora kana kuroorwa, murume kana mukadzi wake nevana (kana ainavo) ndivo vanopihwa. Zvine maitirwo azvo pamutemo zvatichawongorora

ii. Kana mufi akanga asina kuroora kana kuroorwa asi aine vana, vana vake ndivo vanopihwa nhaka yemubereki wavo. Vana ava vanopihwa zvikamu zvakaenzana.

iii. Kana mufi akanga asina kuroora kana kuroorwa, asina vana zvakare, hama dzake dzepedyo kutanga nevabereki vake zvichitevera hanzvadzi vakoma nevanin’ina kusvika kuna sekuru nambuya vanogona kupihwa nhaka. Zvese zvinoitwa pamutemo wakanyorwa.

iv. Kana mufi akanga achiri mwana, zvinhu zvake zvinopihwa vabereki vake.

Ngubani ophiwa ilifa?

Nxa umuyi watshiya ebhale i wili , impahla yakhe izakwabelwa kulandela leyo wili.

Esikhathini esinengi nxa:

i. umuyi ubengumuntu othetheyo kumbe obethethwe njalo engatshiyanga ugwalo oluchaza ukuthi impahla yakhe yabelwe njani okubizwa ngokuthi yi wili umkakhe labantwana nxa kuyabe kulelifa kumbe impahla eseleyo yibo abatshiyelwayo kulandelwa indlela eyabe ihlelwe lugwalo oluchaza ukwabiwa kwempahla esemthethweni.Sizakhangela lokhu ngokugcweleyo phambili .

ii. umuyi ubengumuntu ongathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa kodwa elabantwana , impahla yakhe kumbe ilifa lizakwabelwa abantwabakhe ngokulingeneyo.Abantwana kugoqelwa bonke alabo lalabo abangaphandle komendo.

iii. umuyi ubengumuntu ongathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa njalo engela bantwana ,impahla yakhe izathathwa yizihlobo zakhe eziseduze lalabo okumele bathole limpahla kulandelwa umthetho .Izihlobo eziseduze zigoqela abazali kumbe ogogo labokhulu kanye labafowabo kumbe abanewabo bomufi.Abenelisa ukwabelwa limpahla bahlelilwe kulumthetho.

iv.umuyi ubengumntwana , abazali kumbe ababemgcina kumbe ukumondla yibo abaphiwa limpahla ngendlela abangabe beyifuna.

Who inherits deceased estate property?

If the deceased left a valid will the property will be distributed according to that will in as far as is legally and practically possible. Generally if:

i. the deceased was married and did not leave a valid will their surviving spouse and children (if any) will inherit their property in the manner prescribed by the law. We shall look at this in more detail later.

ii. If the deceased was not married but had children the property will be inherited by the children in equal shares. Children includes those born in and out of wedlock.

iii. If the deceased was not married and had no children their property will be inherited by their closest family members and relatives who qualify as prescribed in terms of the law. Closest family members include parents or grandparents and siblings. The qualifying family members are mentioned in the Act.

iv. If the deceased was a minor child their parents or guardians inherit their property which they can distribute in the manner they may want.

0.5
Mukadzi kana murume wemunhu anowana chii?

Mukadzi kana murume afirwa anogoverwa imba yavaigara vese kuti ive yake ipinde muzita rake ari ega achibvumidzwa kuita zvaanoda nayo. Kana vanga vakanyoresa mazita avo vese anoramba aine chidimbu chake asi anozowana chikamu chemufi. Imba iyi imba yavaigara vese semurume nemukadzi. Hazvirevi imba yese yese yavo nekuti vanhu vanogona kunge vaine dzimba dzakawanda.

Mutemo we Deceased Estates Succession Act unoti kubva 1 November 1997 unoti anowana imba yavaigara vese nezvinhu zvemumba imomo zvavaishandisa. Kana vaive nedzimwe dzimba dzinogovewa nezvimwe zvinhu. Kunotanga kwabhadharwa zvikwereti zvese kuti imba izokwanise kupihwa murume kana mukadzi wacho. Kunogona kunge kwaive nezvikwereti zvemagetsi kana chipatara zvakasiiwa nemufi. Zvinotobhadharwa nenhaka yake.

Owesilisa lowesifazana kundlela yokuthathana evumela ukuthi umuntu abe lendoda kumbe umfazi oyedwa utholani?

Oyabe esele kulabo abathetheneyo uyathola indlu eyibhalise ebizweni lakhe njalo enze angabe ekufuna ngayo.Nxa kungela gwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla njalo lindlu ibibhaliswe emabizweni abo bobabili , oyabe esele ngaphandle kokuthola indlu uzaphinda athathe ingxenye yomuyi kuleyondlu okutsho ukuthi nguye ozabe esengumini ogcweleyo waleyondlu . Le yindlu eyayihlala abathetheneyo bobabili omunye engakatshoni .Lokhu akuchazi ukuthi loba yiphi indlu ngoba bengabe belezinye izindlu ezimbalwa.

Kulandelwa umthetho wokwabiwa kwelifa owe Deceased Estates Succession Act owaqala ukusebenza kusukisela ngomhlaka 1 Lwezi ngomnyaka ka 1997 omunye walabo abathetheneyo oyabe esele uyathatha indlu lempahla ababeyisebenzisa bebonke.Kuqala ngokubhadalwa izikwelede zonke andubana indlu inikezwe umka muyi .Kungabe kulezinye izikwelede zamagetsi kumbe ezesibhedlela.Lezi mali zizabhadalwa zisuka kulifa likamuyi kumbe kumali ezatholakala emveni kokuthengiswa kwendlu ngemvumo kaMaster.Nxa kulokunye okuyabe kusele, umka muyi uzathola :

  1. Indlu lempahla eyabe iphakathi ebeyisebenzisa besaphila bonke njengomfazi lendoda khonapho khonapho kungakaqhamuki imfa njalo

  2. Impahla yendlini lokunye okwakusetshenziswa endlini yabo ngesikhathi besaphila njengendoda lomfazi khonapho khonapho kungakaqhamuki imfa yomunye wabo bobabili.

What does a spouse in a monogamous marriage (i.e. a marriage in which there is only one wife) inherit?

The surviving spouse inherits the matrimonial home as their sole and exclusive property. If there is no will and the house was jointly owned the surviving spouse will apart from retaining her own share inherit the deceased spouse’s half shares and therefore claim the house entirely. The matrimonial house is the house the married couple last lived in as a married couple. It does not mean any house the couple may have owned because they may have owned more than one house.

According to the Deceased Estates Succession Act with effect from 1 November 1997 surviving spouses of people who died without leaving a will are entitled to receive the free residue of the estate. The free residue means after debts and other obligations have been paid out for example the deceased might have left an unpaid medical bill or electricity bill. Valid claims will be paid first from the money in the deceased’s bank account or from the proceeds of selling their property with the Master’s approval. If there is free residue the surviving spouse will receive:

  1. The house or other domestic premises in which they lived together as husband and wife immediately before the person’s death and

  2. The household goods and effects which were used in the house or domestic premises in which the couple lived together immediately before the person’s death or simply put when the spouse died.

0.6
Ko kana imba yacho yakanyoreswa zita remufi chete?

Kunyange mufi akasiya asina kunyora will (wiri) uye mukadzi kana murume wake akanga asina kunyoreswawo pamba yavaigara vese anoipihwa imba yacho chero zvakangodaro. Asi kana mufi ainge akanyora will imba inogona kupihwa chero ani zvake waakanyora kuti aipihwe chero iye mufi akanga aine mukadzi kana murume nevana. Hazvirevi kuti vanhu chete ndivo vanopihwa nhaka. Nhaka inogona kusiirwa chero chii zvacho chiri pamurau senge chechi, company, chikoro chero mapato akasiyana siyana

Asi zvazvo panya iyoyi mutemo uchiri kupokana panyaya yekuti munhu anobvumidzwa kunyoresa munhu waanoda kusiira imba nezvinhu zvake asiri murume kana mukadzi wake. Asi nerimwe divi zvinonzi munhu ane mukadzi kana murume haakwanisi kuita kuti mukadzi kana murume wacho ashaye zvinhu zvakakosha, kunyanya imba yavaigara vese. Chero zvakasiya zvanyorwa zvinogona kupfudziswa nematare kana zvisiri kukurudzira mitemo. Asi munhu haagoni kugovera vamwe vanhu chinhu chisiri chake kana kuti chaanosheya nemukadzi kana murume wake kana zvisingakwanisi kupatsanurika

Nxa igama lomka muyi lingekho kuncwadi eveza ukuba yingxenye yobunini bendlu okubizwa ngokuthi yi tittle deed?

Nxa kungela gwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwelifa njalo umka muyi engabhaliswanga ukuba yingxenye yobunini bendlu .Nxa indlu ibisebizweni likamuyi yedwa, bengakhetha omunye umuntu kumbe enye inhlanganiso ethembekileyo ukuthi ithathe lindlu enjengekilabhu kumbe inkampani.Kodwa indaba yokuthi umuntu ulemvumo yokwenza umathanda ngendlu yakhe yena ethethe kumbe ukuthathwa yinto esacutshungulwa ngamadale ezomthethwandaba njalo ayikacaci . Nxa abathetheneyo belengxenye ezilingeneyo endlini , kungaqhamuka imfa omunye walaba bobabili uyenelisa ukupha ingxenye yakhe komunye umuntu nxa engakubhala kugwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla i wili .Ngokunjalo umka muyi uzakwabelana indlu lalowo oyabe ekhethwe ngumuyi kulandewa iwili.Lokhu kuvame ukuba nzima njalo ngesikhathi esinengi akuhambi kuhle.Idale lezomthethwandaba yilo elikuxazululayo.

What if a spouse’s name is not registered on the title deed of the matrimonial home?

If there is no will and the spouse has no registered share in the house he or she is still entitled to the matrimonial house. However, if the house belonged exclusively to the deceased they can nominate any person or indeed any other valid entity to inherit it such as a club or association or even a company. However, this position of absolute freedom with one’s property when one is married has been questioned by the courts and it is still a grey area. On paper if the married couple each owns half shares in the house the other party ideally can leave their half shares to someone else if they write a will. In that case the surviving spouse will have to share the house with whoever was appointed to inherit the deceased’s half shares in terms of the will. However, this is practically difficult and rarely works in practice. The courts will have to finalise this.

0.7
Kuleyinye yini impahla engatholwa ngumka muyi ngaphandle kwendlu?

Umka muyi uyathola njalo impahla ebisendlini njengokuhleliweyo phambilini.Lokhu kugoqela phakathi imali eyabe isele ngemva kokubhadalwa kwezikwelede lokunye.Imali le iyabelwa umka muyi labantwababo bobabili.Umka muyi uthola imali elingana leyomntwana .Ilifa labelwa abantwana bonke lomkamuyi .Nxa bekulesithembu kumbe abanye abantwana abayabe bezelwe ngaphandle kwalaba abazelwe yilaba abathetheneyo kutsho ukuthi inani labantu abazakwabelwa ilifa liyengezelela.

Kuleyinye yini impahla engatholwa ngumka muyi ngaphandle kwendlu?

Umka muyi uyathola njalo impahla ebisendlini njengokuhleliweyo phambilini.Lokhu kugoqela phakathi imali eyabe isele ngemva kokubhadalwa kwezikwelede lokunye.Imali le iyabelwa umka muyi labantwababo bobabili.Umka muyi uthola imali elingana leyomntwana .Ilifa labelwa abantwana bonke lomkamuyi .Nxa bekulesithembu kumbe abanye abantwana abayabe bezelwe ngaphandle kwalaba abazelwe yilaba abathetheneyo kutsho ukuthi inani labantu abazakwabelwa ilifa liyengezelela.

Are spouses entitled to other property other than the matrimonial house?

The surviving spouse also inherits the household items which were in the matrimonial home as stated above. The property including money that is left after debts and other obligations have been cleared is shared between the surviving spouse and the children they had together. A spouse is entitled to a child’s share. The inheritance is divided by the number of children and the wife and they all get a share. If it was a polygamous union or children born out of wedlock it means there will be more children to share in the inheritance.

0.8
Abafazi besithenjini bathola impahla enganani?

Impahla yabelwa kulandelwa u Sec 68F(b) womthetho we Administration of Estates Act. Ukwabiwa kwenziwa kumahlandla womathathu.Umfazi wakuqala uthola inani lokubili kuthi abanye bathola inani lokukodwa okuyabe kusele .Nxa kuyikuthi bebehlala ezindlini ezehlukeneyo omunye lomunye uzathola indlu ebehlala kiyo kodwa nxa kuyikuthi bebehlala endlini yinye nxa kusenzakala indlu le iyaba ngeyabo bonke kumbe behlale kiyo ngokungapheliyo.

Ko vakadzi vari pabarika vanowanei?

Vanogoverwa zvakanagana ne Administration of Estates Act. Zvinodimburwa muzvidimbu zvitatu. Mukadzi wekutanga anowana zvikamu zviviri vamwe vogovana chikamu chasara. Kana vaigara mudzimba dzakasiyana mumwe nemumwe anowana imba yaaigara asi kana vaigara mumba mumwechete kana zvichigona vanosheya imba yacho kana kubvumidzwa kugara imomo zvachose

What do wives in a polygamous marriage (i.e. a marriage where there was more than one wife) get?

The property is awarded in terms of Sec 68F(b) of the Administration of Estates Act. If there are two or more wives one-third of the net estate is divided between the surviving wives with the first or senior wife getting two thirds of the residue and the junior wives sharing the remaining third equally and the remainder of the estate will go to the child or children in equal shares. If the wives lived in separate houses, each wife will get ownership of the house and its household contents. If they were living in one house and if it is practicable they will get joint ownership of the house or be allowed to live in it or use it for the rest of their lives.

0.9
Abantwana bangaphande batholani?

USection 56(3) wesisekelo sombuso welizwe asivumezi ukubandlululwa kwabantu lokwenqabela ukuthi bengenelisi ukuthola amalungelo alingana lawabanye okugoqela phakathi ukuzalwa ngaphandle komtshado kumbe ebantwini abathetheneyo.Abantwana abazalwa ngaphandle komtshado kumbe abazalwa kwabanye abafazi kumele bathole labo impahla ehambelana leyabanye.Kusukisela ngomnyaka ka 2015 umahluleli wedale le High Court ujudge Mwayera J walawula esithi umntwana wonke ulelungelo lokuthola ilifa lomzali wakhe elilingana lelabantwana abazelwe endlini kumbe abathetheneyo.

Ko vana vekunze vanowaineiwo?

Bumbiro remitema yenyika(Constitution) inorambidza kutsaura vanhu kuti vashaye dzimwe kodzero dzinowana vamwe. Kubvira muna 2015 mutongo wakabuda ku High Court wakati mwana wese chero akaitwa kunze ane kodzero yekuwana nhaka yemubereki wake zvakangofanana nevana vemumba

What about the children born out of wedlock? Can they inherit from their parents’ estate too and if so in what proportion?

Section 56(3) of the Constitution outlaws discrimination based on various grounds including being born out of wedlock. Children born out of wedlock or from second wives cannot be deprived the rights accorded to children born in matrimony. In a 2015 judgement High Court judge Mwayera J ruled that children born out of wedlock have the same inheritance rights as children born in marriage and therefore should inherit their parents’ property on equal terms.

1.0
Kulokunye okungabangela ukuthi abantwana abazelwe ngaphandle komtshado bengatholi ilifa? Nxa kuyiuthi impahla ibingabhaliswanga ebizweni lomzali wabo eyedwa?

Lanxa uSection 56(3) engavumezi ubandlulo lomhlobo loba wuphi, uSection 56(5) uvumela okunye. Ubandlululo luyavunyezwa nxa kulesizatho esiqinileyo sokuthi kungabi lokulinganiswa ekwabelweni kwempahla njengokuthi nxa indlu ibisebizweni lakhe umuyi kanye lelomkakhe.Umka muyi kangeke wephulelwa amalungelo akhe kanye lamandla akhe okuthi abelane labantwana bakamuyi abazalwa ngaphandle komtshado.Ngakho ke indlu le kayingeke yafakwa njengempahla yomuyi okumele yabelanwe.

Hapana here zvimwe zvinogona kuvatadzisa kuwana zvakaenzana nevemumba?

Hongu. Chero hazvo Constitution ichirambidza kutsaura vana asi dzimwe nguva vanogona kusaenzaniswa nevemumba. Kana nhaka yemubereki wavo yakabatana neye mukadzi kana murume wavo isingagoni kupatsanurika havakwanisi kuipihwa. Mutemo hauna mvumo yekutorera munhu chinhu chaakazvisevenzera nesimba rake kuti chipihwe vana vakaitwa kunze kwemba yavo.

Are there no limits to what children born out of wedlock can inherit? What if the property did not exclusively belong to their deceased parent?

While Section 56(3) outlaws discrimination in all its forms Section 56(5) allows for exceptions. To an extent discrimination is allowed if in the circumstances it is fair, reasonable and justifiable. It may be fair and reasonable to exclude children born out of wedlock from sharing in an inheritance for example if the property believed to have been owned by their deceased parent actually belonged to or was jointly owned with their spouse. The surviving spouse cannot be deprived of their rights to any part of their share so what they own cannot be put into the deceased estate for distribution.

1.1
Abantwana bomfazi abazelwe ngaphandle bayagoqelwa yini kulifa labo nina?

Yebo. Umthetho awukhangeli ukuthi ngumntwana ozelwe ngowesifazana kumbe owesilisa ngaphandle.Umthetho usetshenziswa ngokulingeneyo.

Ko vana vemukadzi vanotariswawo here panhaka yamai vavo?

Hongu. Mutemo haunei kuti vana vemurume here kana kuti vemukadzi. Vese vanoenzaniswa vopihwa chikamu chenhaka chakaenzana nevamwe vana varipo.

Are a woman’s children born out of wedlock also included in sharing in her inheritance?

Yes. There is no distinction between children born out of wedlock be they a man’s or woman’s. The law applies equally to men and women.

1.2
Ko vana vadiki vanochengetwa sei?

Deceased Person Family Maintenance Act inoti vana vasiiya nemubereki anga achivachengeta akwanise kuramba achichengetwa nenhaka yemubereki kana nhaka yacho iripo. Master weku High Court vanowona nezvekuramba vana vasiiwa vachichengetwa nenhaka iyoyo. Ndicho chikonzero chekunyoresa nhaka yemufi kuti iwonekwe magovere nemashandisirwo ayo.

Bavikelwa njani abantwana abancane?

Umthetho weMaintenance Act uthi abazali kumele banakekele abantwababo kungakhathalekile lokuthi bazelwe ngandlela bani.Umthetho weDeceased Persons Family Maintenance Act utsho njalo ukuthi abantwana kumele banakekelwe kungakhathelekile lokuthi bazelwe ngandlela bani. Umntwana uzakondliwa ngemali ezabe ivela kulifa lomzali wakhe ikakhulu nxa ebengumuntu olempahla ethe xaxa.

How are minor children protected?

The Maintenance Act compels parents to maintain all their children no matter the circumstances of their birth. The Deceased Persons Family Maintenance Act provides for the maintenance of minor children regardless of their birth circumstances. The duty of maintenance of a minor child is borne by the estate if the estate it is adequately resourced.

1.3
Chii chingaitwe kuchengetedza nhaka yako?

Unogona kunyora Will zviripamutemo. Will inobatsira kuti kurwisanisa nhaka kuite kushoma kana kusatovepo. Zvakanaka kunotaura negweta kuronga ramangwana. Pane nzira dzakasiyana kunge kuvhura Company kana kuti Trust. Trust inzira yekuchengetedza pfuma kuti izoshandiswe nevanhu vaunoda. Trust inochengetedzwa nevamwe vanhu kusanganisira kana kusasanganisira iwe unenge waigadzira. Ine mitemo yayo yainotevedza kuitira kuti ifambe mugwara rakanaka pfuma ichengetedzeke kuti ishandiswe neakachengeterwa.

Kulendlela ekhona yini yokuvikela ukuthi ilifa likamuyi libesezandleni ezingaqondanga?

Ukubhala ugwalo oluchaza ukwabelwa kwempahla olusemthethweni iwili kunceda imuli ezinengi njalo kuvikela udlakela lokungezwani emulini.Enye yendlela yikusungula ama trusts kumbe amankampani. Nxa umuntu efuna ukwenza lokhu kuyacetshiswa ukuthi ayebona ingcitshi kwezemithetho njalo engu notary public. ITrust yona itsho indlela esemthethweni yokulondoloza impahla ukuze iphathise abantu , inkampani lenyamazana lokunye nje oyabe ukukhethile wena . ITrust ingasungulwa usaphila wena .Ingaqhutshwa kuhle yindlela elemithetho eqondileyo yokulondoloza impahla lokuqhutshwa kwayo ngenhloso yokuphathisa abantu oyabe ufuna ukuthi baphathiswe ngayo kusasa.

Is there anything that can be done to protect and safeguard one’s property so that it does not end up in undesired hands?

Writing a valid will saves many battles and family conflicts. Other ways are establishing trusts or companies. If one wants to do that it is advisable to consult a legal practitioner who is also a notary public. A Trust in its simplest sense is a formal and structured arrangement to preserve property for the benefit of other people or other valid entities such as animals or other various causes . A Trust can be established during the lifetime or death of the Trust’s founder. If done properly it Trusts provide a much tidier and secure way of administering and safeguarding property for the intended beneficiaries.

1.4
Vanogara kumaruwa vanogona kunyoresawo here zvenhaka kwavari?

Hongu. Vanonyoresa kumahofisi amudzviti akatekeshera nenyika zvichireva maCivil Court kana kuti Magistrates Court. MuHarare chete ndimo musingaitwi nyaya dzenhaka kuCivil Court. Nyaya dzenhaka dzese dzinoitwa kumahofisi aMaster muHarare. Vana mudzviti vanemasimba mamwe aMaster kuti vamiririre hofisi yavo vabate mabasa mamwe. Saka hapana chikonzero chekuenda kumaguta makuru kunonyoresa nyaya dzenhaka.

Kuyeneliseka yini ukubhalisa ilifa emaphandleni?

Yebo. Ilifa liyeneliseka ukubhaliswa kumadale abo mantshi atholakala elizweni lonke jikelele ngaphandle kweHarare. EHarare indaba zonke eziphathelane lelifa zikhangelwa ehofisini kaMaster edale leHigh Court. Idale leli litholakala elizweni lonke jikelele njalo lisebenzela edale likamantshi elibona ngendaba ezingela bungebenga.OMantshi yibo abaphathisa ngomsebenzi ka Master endaweni zabo .

Can estates be registered in rural areas?

Yes. Estates can be registered at all local magistrates courts throughout the country except in Harare. In Harare all estate matters are handled at the Master’s Office. The office of the Master of the High Court of Zimbabwe is found throughout the country and works through magistrates at civil courts. Magistrates are appointed as assistant masters and can perform the Master’s duties under authority.

1.5
Ndiani anochengetedza nhaka yemufi?

Munhu anochengetedza nhaka yemufi anonzi executor. Executor anebasa rekutevera zvikwereti zvemufi nekuwona kuti zvabhadharwa nevanhu vaive nemari yake uye kubhadhara zvikwereti zvaaifanira kunge akabhadhara kune vamwewo vanhu. Executor anosungirwa kuchengetedza hupfumi hwemufi kunge zvaizoitwa nemuridzi wazvo. Tichatsanangura kuti executor uyu anosarudzwa sei.

Ngubani oqondisa kumbe ukugcina ilifa likamuyi?

Umuntu oqondisa impahla kamuyi ngu executor.Lo ulomsebenzi wokulondoloza ilifa, eqhuba imisebenzi efana lokulandelela abantu abalezikwelede zomuyi kanye lokubhadala izikwelede eziyabe zitshiyiwe ngumuyi.Kumele njalo agcine impahla ngendlela umuyi ebezayigcina ngawo.Ngaphansi sizakhangela ukuthi vele yena ukhethwa njani.

Who is responsible for administering a deceased estate?

An executor is appointed to administer a deceased estate. The executor is responsible for taking care of the estate such as pursuing and collecting debts owed to the estate and paying off debts that the estate owes third parties. The executor has to take care of the property that is in the estate with as much care and skill as the owner would have done. We will look at how the executor is appointed below

1.6
Executor anosarudzwa sei?

Executor anosarudzwa nenzira nhatu dzinotevera

i. kana akanyorwa muwill yemufi

ii. kubvumirana kwehama

iii. kutonga kwaMaster

Master anopindira odoma executor asina hukama nemhuri yemufi kana paita makakatanwa nekusawiririrana kwehama pakusarudza executor. Master anemvumo yekugumura Executor kana asiri kuita basa zvakanaka oisa mumwe executor. Executor anosarudzwa nehama pamusangano wehama na Master unonzi Edict meeting. Kana pane asarudzwa kuita executor anopihwa magwaro ebasa anonzi ma Letters of Administration. Ndiwo anomupa mvumo yekuita basa raExecutor. Magwaro iwawo anozodiwa kuratidzwa pese paanenge achiita basa rekufambisa nhaka yemufi. Basa raExecutor rinogona kuitwa mubatanidzwa pakati pevanhu vaviri kana Master achiwona zvakakodzera.

Ukhethwa njani u executor kumbe umqondisi?

U executor kumbe umqondisi ukhethwa ngendlela ezilandelayo

i. kulandelwa iwili

ii ukuvumelana kwezihlobo eziseduze

iii. ukukhethwa ngu Master.

Esikhathini esinengi uMaster uyangenela ekhethe umuntu ongela buhlobo lomuyi nxa kungela kuzwana ekukhethweni kukamqondisi kumbe u executor.UMaster engakhetha umqondisi kumbe u executor nxa lowo oyabe ekhethiwe eveza ukungabi lolwazi lokuqhuba umsebenzi awuphiweyo .Izihlobo zikamuyi eziseduze, abalezikwelede zikamuyi lalapho umuyi alezikwelede khona kumele bangene umhlangano ehofisini kaMaster kumbe edale likamantshi ukuze kukhethwe umqondsi kumbe u executor. Ngemva kokukhethwa kwakhe uyaphiwa incwadi zokumupha imvumo yokuqhuba umsebenzi njengomqondisi kumbe u executor. Umsebenzi wakhe engawuqhuba labanye ababili lokhu konke kusenziwa kulandelwa imvumo kaMaster.

How is an executor appointed?

An executor can be appointed in any of three ways

i. in terms of a will

ii consent of the closest relatives

iii. appointment by the Master.

Usually the Master intervenes and appoints an independent executor if the deceased’s relatives cannot reach consensus on who to appoint or if there is a dispute within the family over the appointment. The Master can also appoint an executor if the appointed executor is incompetent and not performing their duties well. The deceased’s close relatives, creditors and debtors should attend a scheduled meeting at the Master’s office or the Magistrates Court for the appointment of the executor. Upon the appointment the executor is issued with Letters of Administration which serve as the official authority to act as the executor. The role of executor can be jointly shared between two people with the Master’s approval.

1.7
Chii chinozoitwa na Executor?

Executor anonyora zvinhu zvese zvakasiiwa nemufi oyenzanisa mari inofanira kubuda kubhadhara zvikwereti nemari inofanira kuwedzera nhaka inofanira kuteverwa. Kana apedza kudaro kana paine zvasara ndizvo zvinogoverwa hama dzepadyo dzinokodzera. Kana zvikwereti zvakapfuura hupfumi hwenhaka hapana chinogoverwa. Executor anotozotengesa midziyo nezvimwe zvemufi kana zviripo kuti akwanise kubhadhara zvikwereti. Basa raExecutor rinofanira kusvika pakupera faira racho rizovharwa kana zvinogoverwa zvapera. Master anofanira kusvika pakubvumirana zviripamurawu nemagovero aitwa nhaka yemufi kuti zvinzonzi zvapera.

Yiwuphi umsebenzi kaExecutor olandelayo?

Ngemva kokukhethwa okusemthethweni kuka executor, okulandelayo yikulandela amanyathelo empahla lezikwelede zonke zikamuyi.Lokhu kwenziwa ngokuhlela okuthiwa yiDistribution Account okutsho indlela kumbe inyathelo lokwabelwa kwempahla. Lapha kulethwa mgceke impahla lezikwelede konke kufakwa emalini.Nxa impahla inengi ukwedlula izikwelede kuzaba lelifa elizakwabelwa labo okumele bathole.Nxa izikwelede zizinengi ukwedlula impahla kulifa kutsho ke ukuthi akula lutho lokwabela labo okumele bathole.Umqondisi kuzamele athengise impahla nxa ikhona ukuze abhadale izikwelede.Ukuqondiswa kwempahla kucina ngokwabela limpahla kulabo okumele bayithole ize iphelelele yonke kusenziwa ngemvumo ka Master. Impahla kamuyi izasala ikhona ngemva kokubhadala kwezikwelede .Ngemva kokwabiwa kutsho ukuthi ilifa likamuyi labelwe laphelelela.

What is the Executor’s next step?

After formal appointment the executor has to follow a guided process of accounting for all the assets and liabilities of the estate. They do it through drawing up the estate’s Distribution Account. The account lists all the assets and liabilities in monetary values and balances them. If the assets exceed the liabilities there will be a surplus which will be distributed to the beneficiaries. If the liabilities exceed the assets it means there is nothing to distribute to beneficiaries. The executor will have to sell the estate’s assets if any to settle debts. The administration of the estate culminates in distributing of the assets to beneficiaries and winding up the administration to the satisfaction and approval of the Master. The deceased’s property that remains in the estate after all expenses and liabilities have been paid out has to be distributed and the estate wound up and closed.

1.8
Kune mari inobhadharwa here?

Kwa Master kunobhadharwa 4% yemari yehupfumi hwenhaka zvichireva zvikamu zvina pazana rega rega remari yenhaka. Semuenzaniso kana nhaka ine huremu hunosvika $1000 mari inobhadarwa inenge iri $40. Executor akazvimiririra ega asiri hama anobhadharwa 5% yemari iri munhaka.

Kulendleko ephathelane lokuqhuba lumsebenzi wokwabiwa kwelifa?

Yebo.Ku Master kuhlawulwa inani lokune ekhulwini lemali yonke elokwenza lempahla yonke yelifa ukuze umsebenzi wokuqhuba uqalise.Oqondisa ezimele yedwa yena ubiza inani lokuhlanu ekhulwini yenani yemali yonke yelifa.Imali le kumele ihlawulwe ukuze imisebenzi yonke yelifa iqhutshwe kodwa uMaster uyenelisa ukuthi abeke indlela kumbe indleko enelisekayo kungaba lesicelo.

Are there any charges associated with the administration process?

Yes the master feed are 4% of the value of the estate which have to be paid before the administration can begin. An independent executor charges 5% of the value of the estate. Payment of the Master’s fee is mandatory for all estates but the Master is amenable to granting special payment concessions on a discretionary basis upon request.

1.9
Kupokana panyaya dzenhaka kunogadziriswa sei?

Chese chanetsa pamaererano nenyaya dzenhaka chinofanira kumhan’arwa kuna Master nekuti hofisi yavo ndiyo inemasimba ekuenzanisa mhuri dzinenge dzatadza kuwirirana. Vanenge vasina kugutsikana nematongero a Master vanekodzero yekukwidza nyaya yavo kudare guru re High Court. Vanhu vanokuridzirwa kuwona magweta kutsvaga mazano maererano nemutemo.

Ukungezwani kundaba zelifa kuxazululwa njani?

Izikhalazo zonke lokungezwani okuphathelane lelifa kumele kumangalwe ku Master. Ihofisi kaMaster ivunyelwe okusemthethweni ukuthi izame ukuxazulula ukungezwani kwamalunga emuli , labo okumele bathole ilifa kanye lalowo oqondisa kumbe oqhuba umsebenzi wokwaba ilifa. Abantu abangabe bekhubaziwe yizinqumo eziyabe zithethwe nguMaster ekukhethweni kwalowo oqondisayo kumbe u executor balemvumo yokuhambisa izikhalazo zabo edale laphezulu ele High Court ukuze isinqumo sikhangelwe njalo. Ingcitshi kwezemithetho lazo zingacelwa ukuthi zibacebise ngendaba zokwabiwa kwelifa likamuyi kanye lokuxazulula ukungezwani okungavela ngesikhathi kusabiwa impahla zikamuyi.

How can inheritance disputes be resolved?

All complaints and disputes pertaining deceased estates should be reported to the Master. The Master’s Office is legally obliged to attempt to resolve disputes family members, beneficiaries and executor. People who are aggrieved by any decision made by the Master pertaining to any aspect of appointment of the executor or the administration of a deceased estate are allowed to appeal to the High Court to review the decision. Legal practitioners can also be consulted for legal advice pertaining the administration of deceased estates and assistance with resolution of inheritance disputes.

2.0
Michato yechivanhu isina kunyoreswa inocherechedzwa here panyaya dzenhaka?

Hongu inopihwa chiremerera chakangofanana nemichato yekwa mudzviti kana yemu kereke yeChapter 5.11 neChapter 5:07. Michato ye Chapter 5.07 michato inobvumidzwa barika asi yakanyoreswa kwamudzviti. Chikamu 68 che mutemo wenhaka unonzi Administration for Deceased Estates chakanangana nezvenhaka dzemichato yechivanhu chete.

Umtshado kumbe indlela yokuthathana engabhaliswanga iyananzwa yini ekwabelweni kwelifa?

Imitshado yesintu layo iyananzwa njengeminye imihlobo yemitshado nxa kukhangelwa ukwabiwa kwelifa njengokwabiwa okwenziwayo emuntwini olomtshado wensontweni u Chapter 5.11 lo Chapter 5:07 . UChapter 5.07 ngumtshado wesintu obhalisiweyo okusemthethweni . USection 68 womthetho obona ngokwabiwa kwelifa owe Administration of Deceased Estates Act uqukethe ezinye indlela ezigoqela imitshado yesintu.

Are unregistered customary marriages recognised for inheritance purposes?

Unregistered customary marriages are regarded as valid as any other marriage for the purposes of inheritance like Chapter 5.11 and Chapter 5:07 marriages. Chapter 5.07 are registered customary marriages. Section 68 of the Administration of Deceased Estates Act contains provisions for customary marriages.

2.1
Muchato wechivanhu unozikanwa sei kuti uripo?

Michato yechivanhu isina kunyoreswa ndiyo yezvimwe zvinokonzera kupokana mumhuri. Ndizvo zvakakoshera kuti hama dzepedyo dziende kumusangano wehama kwa Master unonzi edict meeting. Kana hama dzikabvumirana kuti mufi akanga akaroora kana kuroorwa Master anongotevedzera izvozvo. Kana pakashaya kuwiririrana Master anoenderera mberi sekunge pakanga pasina wanano pakati pevaviri. Vanhu vazhinji vanorasika pakufunga kuti mukadzi nemurume vakagarisana kwechinguva chakareba uye vakaita vana vanenge vatove nemucahto asi hazvisirizvo pamutemo. Pakuroorana panofanira kunge pakaita zvirango zvechivanhu zvinotambirwa nehama dzemhuri mbiri dzevari kuroorana.

Umtshado wesintu wona uchazwa njani kumbe wazakala njani ukuthi ukhona?

Le imihlobo yemitshado engabhaliswanga ngenye yembangela yokungezwani ekwabiweni kwelifa.Ngenye yezizatho zokuthi izihlobo zingene emihlanganweni ebizwa ngokuthi edict njalo iqakathekile ekuqhutshweni kwemisebenzi yelifa .Limihlangano ingenwa yibo bonke abalokwenza lelifa likamuyi , abezikwelede labanye abaphathekileyo.Emhlanganweni lo kulapho amalunga emuli avuma kumbe ukulandula ukuthi umuyi ebelomtshado wesintu .Abantu abanengi bacabanga ukuthi ngoba ababili besebechithe isikhathi eside bebonke njalo belabantwana sekusitsho ukuthi ababili bebetshadile.Lokhu akusiloqiniso ngoba kulezinto eziphathelane lesiko okumele zenziwe kuqala ukuze betshadiswe okusesintwini. Nxa amalunga emuli zombili evumelana ukuthi umuyi ubethethe kumbe ukuthathwa uMaster uzalandela lokho okuvunyelwe ngabemuli zombili ebesipha umka muyi isikhundla sakhe esiqondileyo.Nxa kungenjalo uMaster uzaqhubekela phambili enanza umuyi njengomuntu obengathathanga kumbe ukuthathwa kodwa uzananza abantwana abazalwayo ngesikhathi behlezi bonke njengomfazi lendoda.

How is an unregistered customary marriage proved?

This is often a contentious issue and one of the leading causes for inheritance disputes. This is one of the reasons edict meetings are so important and vital in the administration of estates. The edict meeting is convened for all those who have an interest in the estate including family members, relatives, debtors and creditors. At the edict meeting family members can confirm or deny the existence of a customary marriage. Many people are of the mistaken view that simply because a couple lived together for many years and had children it meant the couple was married. This is not true because there are certain recognised and mutually accepted cultural rituals that must be performed before people are regarded as being customarily married. If the family members from both sides are in agreement that the deceased was married the Master accepts they were married and confers the surviving spouse with the surviving spouse status. If not the Master will proceed as if the deceased was not married but will not disregard the children born of the cohabiting union.

2.2
Umtshado obhalisiweyo uyawubhidliza yini owesintu?

Hatshi.Nxa indoda yatshada edale phansi kukaChapter 5.11 lumtshado kumele ungemukelwa njalo ungabi khona.Ukungena komunye umtshado kulomunye kudala akuwuchithi owesintu obuvele ukhona.

Muchato wekwamudzviti hauparadzi muchato wechivanhu wagara uripo here?

Kwete kana murume akazochata kwamudzviti mucahto we Chapter 5.11 nemumwe mukadzi muchato iwowo unogona kunodzimiswa nekuti uri kunze kwemutemo. Muchato wakatanga kuvapo ndiwo unotanga kucherechedwa pakugova nhaka.

Does a subsequent civil marriage invalidate an existing unregistered customary marriage?

No. If anything the more recent civil marriage under Chptar 5.11 should be challenged and voided. Contracting a civil marriage while a customary law marriage subsists does not invalidate the first marriage contracted under customary law.

2.3
Mukadzi wekutanga anodzivirirwa sei nemutemo kana pakazoita muchato wekwamudzviti nemumwe mukadzi?

Muchato wemukadzi wekutanga ndiwo unotorwa semuchato wekutanga zviripamurawu. Mukadzi wechipiri anogona kuzotorwa seari pabarika nekuti kazhinji anenge akabvisirwawo roora chero zvazvo aine muchato wekwa mudzviti. Pakadaro muchato wekwamudzviti hauiswi pamberi, unotoita seusipo nekuti hausi pamurawu.

Umfazi wakuqala owathathwa ngendlela yesintu uvikelwa njani umyeni wakhe engathatha omunye umfazi etshade umtshado obhalisiweyo?

Lokhu kuvamile kwele Zimbabwe njalo kubangela ukungezwani ekwabiweni kwelifa.Nxa kwakulomtshado wesintu obuvele ukhona kungakabi lomunye umtshado obhalisiweyo . owakuqala uyananzwa . Umfazi wakuqala nguye onanzwa njengomfazi kamuyi.Lo umtshado wesibili unanzwa njengesithembu ngoba lo umtshado wesibili ungabe wabakhona phezulu komtshado wesintu kodwa awubi phambili kowesintu.

How is the first customarily married wife protected if her husband contracts a subsequent civil marriage with another woman?

This is a typical Zimbabwean situation which causes the bulk of family conflicts and inheritance disputes. If there was a pre-existing and subsisting customary law marriage before the later civil law marriage was contracted the pre-existing customary law marriage is recognised as valid. The first wife is regarded as the surviving spouse. The subsequent marriage may be regarded as a polygamous marriage because a customary marriage will likely have been contracted in addition to the civil marriage but it will not supercede the first customary marriage.

2.4
Chii chinonzi Inheritance Plan?

Igwaro rinonyorwa kana nhaka ichishandisirwa mutemo wenhaka yakanangana nemichato yechivanhu. Inoratidza midziyo inenge yasara kuti igoverwe kune vana nevakadzi vepabarika. Vana vechidiki nevakadzi vanogona kungoramba vachichengetwa nemari yenhaka kana ichiripo. Vanogona kupihwa mari yemendenenzi (maintenance). Master anofanira kugutsikana kuti vanhu vese vane chekuita nenhaka vakaziviswa nezvenhaka yacho panonyorwa inheritance plan kuitira kuyedza kuderedza kupokana kunogona kuitika.

Kuyini okubizwa njengendlela yokuhlela ilifa iinheritance plan?

Lokhu kuchaza ilifa eliphansi komtshado wesintu.Kutshengisa impahla yonke ezakwabiwa ngemva kokubhadala izikwelede zonke zikamuyi.Uhlelo lolu lwenzelwa ukuphathisa abafelofazi labantwana.Luchaza njalo ukuthi abantwana abancane bazanakekelwa njani kumali yelifa lomzali kumbe ekuthengisweni kwempahla zikamuyi.Abafelokazi labo bengafuna ukuthi banakekelwe kumali yelifa lamadoda abo.UMaster kumele abe lesiqiniseko sokuthi wonke amalunga emuli aphathekileyo kulifa ayazisiswa ephe lemibono yawo ekuhleleni lindlela yokwabiwa kwempahla. Ekuhlelweni kogwalo lolu kumele kube lokuzwanana kwemuli lokhu kuzakwenza ukuthi ukungezwani kube kulutshwane luhlelwe ngendlela.

What is an inheritance plan?

This applies only to estates governed under customary law. It shows the net assets that are in the estate which will be distributed after settling all the liabilities and claims against the estate. The inheritance plan is drawn up for the benefit of the beneficiaries such as widows and children. It should include how the minor children will be maintained from the estate and from proceeds of sale of assets. Widows can also claim spousal maintenance from the estate. The Master has to ensure that all the family members with a stake in the estate have been consulted in drafting the inheritance plan. In order to minimize disputes the inheritance plan should be drawn up by consensus of the relatives as far as possible.

2.5
Kana mukadzi akaroorwa pabarika akafa chii chinoitika nenhaka yake?

Murume afirwa anowana chikamu chimwe chete pazvitatu zvimwe zviviri zvoenda kune vana vake zvakaenzana. Vamwe vakadzi vari pabarika hapana chavanowana panhaka yemumwe mukadzi wepabarika kana achinge afa.

Kuyini okwenzakalayo umfazi wesithenjini engafa kumbe ukutshona?

Ilifa lowesifazana osesithenjini liyabiwa kulandelwa umthetho onanza umtshado wesintu.Owesilisa olomfazi otshonileyo uzathola impahla eyisilinganiso sokunye kokuthathu besekusithi inani yokubili kokuthathu izakwabelwa abantwana ngokulingeneyo.Abanye abafazi abasesithenjini abatholi lutho kulifa lomune umfazi.

What happen when a woman in a polygamous marriage dies?

The deceased estates of women married in polygamous marriage are also distributed in terms of the law of deceased estates under customary law. The surviving husband will get one third of her net estate and the remaining two thirds will be shared equally amongst her children. The co-wives in the polygamous marriage are not entitled to inherit anything from deceased co-wives.

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